Photoluminescence characteristics of CdSe/ZnS quantum dot (QD) doped fibers in different matrices (toluene and poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) sol) are investigated in this paper. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the QD doped fiber with different fiber lengths and doped concentrations are measured. Effects of the doped concentration and fiber length on the spectra are also discussed. Compared with the measured PL spectra of CdSe/ZnS QD before doping in the fiber in different matrices, there are different red shifts after the QD is doped into the fiber due to re-absorption/excitation effects. The transportation loss of the fiber is related with such red shifts.