Alumina-forming alloys have been studied for over 50 years and are now needed for high efficiency power generation applications operating at higher temperatures. Especially in the presence of water vapor, alumina-forming alloys outperform conventional chromia-forming alloys above 1000°C. However, alloy mechanical behavior is a significant issue and alumina-forming alloy development has been limited. The opportunity for alloy development is discussed as well as thefactors that limit oxidation resistance, including alloy thermal expansion and optimizing reactive element additions. Finally, lifetime modeling is discussed for thick section components together with the need to address performance in more complex environments.