A novel curved artificial optical compound eye structure is proposed, which needs to be manufactured by ultra-precision machining due to the application of aspheric in the design. In this artificial compound eye, each of the micro-lens has an aspheric surface instead of spherical surface, which leads to a reduction of spherical aberration from 400μm to 75μm. The focal length of micro-lens is decided by its own position and equals to the distance between base surface and image receiver. The sructural parameters of micro-lens were calculated according to the theory of geometrical optics. The model of artificial compound eye was built and verified by ray tracing. Finally, the result shows that the novel curved artificial compound eye can improve imaging resolution and imaging quality at the edge effectively, and the proposed structure is feasible.