Significant advances are reported in the application of HR-EBSD to the imaging of the dislocation structure of polycrystalline materials. The central assumption of the method is the compatibility of the total displacement field, which relates the (Nye) dislocation tensor to the (partially measurable) curl of the elastic displacement field. Two key challenges must be addressed, including: a) the fundamental limitation imposed by the electron-opacity of typical materials, which limits the measurement of gradients in the displacement field in the direction normal to the sample surface; and b) the inability of HR-EBSD to recover the spherical (elastic) distortions of the lattice. This second challenge can be overcome if a traction free boundary condition is applied. It is illustrated that consideration of the familiar stress equilibrium relations gives additional information, which may enable estimates of the missing components of the Nye tensor. An example of application of HR-EBSD to a Mg-Ce sample is presented.