The substructure inhomogeneity of rolled Ti-48%Ni-2%Fe single crystals was studied by the X-ray method of Generalized Pole Figures. Under rolling of single crystals, along with texture formation, the nonuniform substructure develops. It is conditioned by inhomogeneous reorientation of the crystalline lattice and local differences in predominant plastic deformation mechanisms. The distribution of residual deformation effects is controlled by the orientation of separate regions relative to texture maxima. Rolled single crystals prove to be divided into subcomponents with close orientations and opposite signs of elastic microstrains.