In this work, effects of the oxygen plasma on surface characteristics of carbon fibers were investigated in impact strengths of the carbon fibers-reinforced composites. The surface properties of the carbon fibers were determined by acid-base values, FT-IR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Also, the mechanical properties of the composites were studied in impact strength measurements. As experimental results, the O1S/C1S ratio of the carbon fiber surfaces treated by oxygen plasma was increased compared to that of untreated ones, possibly due to development of oxygen-containing functional groups. The mechanical properties of the composites, including impact strength had been improved in the oxygen plasma on fibers. These results indicate that the oxygen plasma can lead to an increase in the adhesion between fibers and matrix in a composite system.