BaF2 nanorods were synthesized by hydrothermal microemulsion method using sodium fluoride (NaF) and barium chloride (BaCl2) as the raw materials. The as-prepared products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the products were composed of BaF2 nanorods with diameters of 18-62 nm and lengths up to 1μm. A directed aggregation growth process mediated by the microemulsion droplet building blocks is proposed for the formation of BaF2 nanorods. Further work is in progress to evaluate the possibility of synthesizing other fluoride 1D nanostructures using a similar method.