Molten Mg alloys burn rapidly in air if not protected. In order to handle molten Mg safely, the molten metal should be protected from oxidation by covering the surface with flux or protective gases. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas is widely used for Mg alloy as a cover gas and has proved to be a successful inhibitor. However, the use of SF6 gas is limited because of its high cost and its significant impact on global warming potential (GWP). Therefore, SF6 gas is being replaced by alternative protection gases such as tetrafluoro ethane (HFC-134a) and 3M NovecTM 612. These gases are less expensive and have lower GWP, compared with SF6 gas. Recent studies show that there has been another attempt by adding CaO into Mg alloys to manufacture CaO added AZ31Mg alloy in terms of increasing ignition temperature and reducing protective cover gas amount during melting and casting. This paper discusses effect of CaO on ignition and oxidation behaviors of AZ31 Mg alloy as well as on surface roughness and mechanical properties of AZ31 Mg alloy extruded bars.