Currently, nanopowders and nanocomposites reinforced with nanofillers are one of the most rapidly developing groups of materials possessing excellent prospects for a wide range of industrial and medical applications. This paper presents several examples of the nanomaterials developed in the Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering of Warsaw University of Technology which can have dental applications. Ceramic-polymer composites are the most popular materials for dental fillings. The influence of the nanofiller additions on the relevant properties of ceramic-polymer dental composites are discussed in the paper. The other group of nanomaterials applicable as dental materials are based on nanostructured yttrium stabilized zirconium oxide ceramic. This ceramic is widely used for the fabrication of crowns, bridges, inlays and other dental elements for which high strength, durability and esthetical appearance is required. The effect of the nano-grain size of the ceramic powder on the sintering parameters, microstructure and properties of the zirconia is discussed.