We present the results of time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) and optically detected microwave resonance (ODMR) spectroscopy investigations of semiconductor quantum dots and quantum wells. The ODMR spectra of InAs/GaAs QDs were detected via modulation of the total intensity of the QDs emission induced by 95 GHz microwave excitation and exciton fine structure was studied. Very long life times (up to 10 ns) of photoexcited carriers were observed in this system using TRPL at low temperatures and excitation intensities promising higher responsitivity of such QDs for quantum dot infrared photodetector development. The effects of proton and alpha particles irradiation on carrier dynamics were investigated on different InGaAs/GaAs, InAlAs/AlGaAs and GaAs/AlGaAs QD and QW systems. The obtained results demonstrated that carrier lifetimes in the QDs are much less affected by proton irradiation than that in QWs. A strong influence of irradiation on the PL intensity was observed in multiple QWs after high-energy alpha particles irradiation.