Current Trends in Ergonomics

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Authors: Tegar Septyan, Boy Nurtjahyo
Abstract: This research studies the ergonomic aspect from toll booth and operators performance. It is mainly based on working posture and service time of operators. The analysis of working posture based on Posture Evaluation Index using Software Jack 6.1, meanwhile service time based on queuing theory using WinQsb. The output of the study can be divided to actual and 36 reconfiguration design. The results suggest that the most ergonomic design is with 51 cm in seat height, 5 cm in foot rest height, and 80 cm in desk height. Based on simulation, it can reduce the average time of costumer spend in the queue until 82% from 35.31 seconds to 6.4 seconds.
Authors: Darliana Mohamad, Baba Md Deros, Ahmad Rasdan Ismail, Dian Darina Indah Daruis, Ezrin Hani Sukadarin
Abstract: Musculoskeletal disorder (WMSDs) is the common health problems for the industrial workers. This health problem can contribute to long term effect on the production performance. The objective of this study is to analyze the posture of industrial worker in packaging industry using the RULA assessment in CATIA P3 V5R14 software. The working posture was reconstructed and developed in the CATIA P3 V5R14 software and then RULA assessment was conducted. From the RULA analysis, several awkward postures were detected to be high in risk factors. The postures in risk are postures 1,2 and 5 which mainly involve lifting heavy product and excessive bending. As a conclusion the RULA assessment was able to detect the problematic postures and further improvement can be conducted to avoid discomfort or further health complication.
Authors: Patel Thaneswer, J. Sanjog, Anirban Chowdhury, Sougata Karmakar
Abstract: Research towards developing user-compatible, ease in use and safe agricultural equipment with proper consideration of human factors using cutting edge technology like Digital Human Modeling (DHM) and simulation is very important in todays scenario. This technology offers new possibilities to integrate ergonomics principles into design process from the very beginning (conceptual phase) to solve complex problems in many engineering disciplines. However, its application is till very limited in agricultural sector. This paper provides overview of up-to-date research in virtual ergonomics evaluation technology (through DHM) and its applications in agriculture. Attempt has also been made to highlight future research direction in many areas of agricultural sectors where DHM might contribute potentially for ergonomic interventions to reduce drudgery and chances of errors and accidents. Authors have also identified reasons behind less adoption of this technology in agricultural sectors and tried to highlight strategies to be followed for wide adoption.
Authors: Debkumar Chakrabarti, Manoj Deori, Sangeeta Pandit, T. Ravi
Abstract: Ergonomics has become an integral part of design education curriculum, where input content demands demonstration through citing and analysing appropriate design experiences. It has come to fore through many academic forum discussions and meetings that to internalise various ergonomics issues relevant hands on experiences on this are necessary. To impart a feel of laboratory experimentation as well as application relevance to a greater number of learners, a virtual environment scenario could go along.A virtual presentation of ergonomics laboratory experiments on physical anthropometry and its design dimension consequences has been tried out. It contains a total of eleven sections. The topic opens with the introductory session where the subject matter and the laboratory experiment methodology in general was considered; this was followed by ten specific topics with flash based self-learning modules and data support on Indian population was provided to have a ready reference. Some of these topic specific experiment sections are also backed with video demonstrations.A whole set of virtual laboratory module under development, for users feedback, has already been uploaded in the net. The experiments are self-explanatory, downloadable and easy to perform. The feedback collected so far (online and also through direct demonstration surveys), confirms its usefulness both by the teachers and student-learners of Ergonomics specialisation and design programmes. This paper reports the salient features with content outline of the educational and free to use virtual anthropometric experiments manual developed which is being fine-tuned at IIT Guwahati.
Authors: Keith Case
Abstract: User-Centred Design aims to involve users at all stages of the design of products. Some of the basic principles are briefly considered together with their relationship to ergonomics. Tools for the application of User-Centred Design are discussed including specific tools such as digital human modelling, personas, manikin characters, inclusive design and human behavioural modelling.
Authors: Maryam Mousavi, Yap Hwa Jen, Siti Nurmaya Binti Musa
Abstract: With the emerge of new technologies many systems are presented to a wider range of users at reasonable costs. Virtual Reality (VR) technology has also entered many new economical areas such as tourism, business, online games, and also cultural heritage. The new advancement in VR and its availability to the end user in many forms necessitates considering the health issues because cybersickness is one of the drawbacks of Virtual Environments (VE). In addition, usability of the VE and the provided VR technology and system is of paramount importance in the market to attract the user. However, usability measurement of the VE also has become a difficult issue due to the vast range of products and users. A review on the cybersickness and usability issues in VE is prepared and presented in this paper.
Authors: Muraki Satoshi, Saito Seiji, Ookura Mituru
Abstract: In sidewalks, slopes for vehicle crossings are often installed, and pedestrians have to walk across these slopes. The present study examined the influences of slope gradients on the danger and physical strain during stroller locomotion. Nine female participants walked forward while pushing a stroller with a dummy baby on a mock sidewalk with 1) a cross slope (the whole surface of the sidewalk tilted sideways) at gradients of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%, and 2) combined slopes connecting a cross slope at gradients of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% and a flat 0% area. The velocity and tracks of the stroller, the pressure between the palm and the stroller handle, and an electromyogram (EMG) of the upper limbs of the participant were measured during stroller locomotion. Throughout both the cross and the combined slopes, the participants decreased their locomotion velocity according to the increase in the slope gradient. The steeper slope led the stroller to drift off-course to the downhill direction and caused increased pressure between the palm of the participant and the handle and increased EMG values, especially in the forearms. The results indicated that, on a sidewalk with a steeper cross slope, it is difficult for stroller users to maintain their intended course, even if they decrease their locomotion velocity and make their greater physical effort.
Authors: Johanna Renny Octavia, Maria Stephanie Widjaja
Abstract: The aging population calls for more research efforts towards enhancing assisted living for elderly people living in Indonesia, including ergonomic housing that accommodates their characteristics and needs. This paper discusses a study to provide an ergonomic living-dining room design in elderly homes by applying the participatory design approach with six Indonesia elders. Through interviews and observations, a list of elderly user requirements was defined as a foundation to generate a number of design concepts. Furthermore, one design concept was selected and refined by applying the anthropometry data.
Authors: Nabilla Sofia Mohd Kamil, Siti Zawiah Md Dawal
Abstract: Few studies have investigated sitting posture and muscle activity during computer work. This study aims to determine sitting postural angle and its influence on neck and low back muscle activity in ageing women workforce during computer task. Seventeen female workers aged 50 and above participated. Surface electromyography activity was recorded from cervical erector spinae, lumbar multifidus, longgisimus and iliocostalis in 20 minutes computer task. Concurrently inclinometer recordings from upper trunk and pelvis were used to determine back posture. The results for the upper trunk angle show that the posture deviates from the sagittal plane in range-10 to 10 degree during the task. While the pelvic rotated forward and backward in range-15 to 15 degree.Neutral sitting posture with slight extension or flexion of the upper trunk and pelvic posture performed by ageing women workforce during computer work cause reduction in muscle activity. Higher level of muscle activity was indicated in back flexion rather than back extension.

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