An Overview of Ergonomics Problems Related to CNC Machining Operations


Article Preview

In the new era of advanced manufacturing technology, machine tool design plays an important role in maximizing productivity and occupational health of industrial workers. However, the machine tool manufacturers face difficulty in designing an ergonomic machine tool that can be suited to Malaysian industrial workers because almost all machine tools were designed according to physical dimensions, capabilities and limitations of European or American populations. This mismatch between machine design and worker abilities may eventually lead to occupational injuries. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to disseminate information on ergonomics problem, assessment methods, and control measures associated with CNC machining operation. Published articles related to CNC machining operation have been reviewed. Based on published researches, work-related musculoskeletal disorders such as low-back pain, neck and shoulder problem have been identified as common health problems associated with the machine operation. Engineering and administrative controls have been proposed to minimize the health problems.



Edited by:

Rosnah Mohd Yusuff, Siti Anom Ahmad, Dian Darina Indah Daruis, Baba Md Deros and Siti Zawiah Md Dawal




M. Z. Hafiz et al., "An Overview of Ergonomics Problems Related to CNC Machining Operations", Advanced Engineering Forum, Vol. 10, pp. 137-142, 2013

Online since:

December 2013


* - Corresponding Author

[1] P. Seppala, E. Touminen, Job characteristics and mental and physical experienced, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 9 (1992) 25-35.

[2] I.A. Khan, (2012).

[3] B. Das, A.K. Sengupta, Industrial workstation design: A systematic ergonomics approach. Applied ergonomics, 27(3) (1996) 157-163.


[4] J.R. Wilson, Participation – a framework and a foundation for ergonomics? Journal of Occupational psychology, 64 (2001) 67-80.

[5] P.W. Buckle, J.J. Devereux, The nature of work-related neck and upper musculoskeletal disorders. Applied Ergonomics, 33 (2012) 207-217.


[6] Y. Tian, T. Zuo, Ergonomics Research and CNC machine tools in the interface design of the application, Computer-Aided Industrial Design and Conceptual Design 9th International Conference, (2008) 73-77.


[7] M. Iqbal, S.A. Iqbal, A.N.M. Rahman, A.H.M. Samsuzzoha, Ergonomics And Design, Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, (2011) 22-24.

[8] D. Grayson, A.M. Dale, P. Bohr, L. Wolf, B. Evanoff, Ergonomics evaluation. Part of a Treatment Protocol for Musculoskeletal Injuries, 53 (10) (2005) 450-456.

[9] A. Mitala, A. Pennathur, Advanced technologies and humans in manufacturing workplaces: an interdependent relationship, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 33 (2004) 295–313.


[10] K. Muthukumar, K. Sankaranarayanasamy, A.K. Ganguli, Discomfort analysis in computerized numeric control machine operations. Safety and Health, 3 (2012) 146-153.


[11] A.M. Macias, M.G. Ramirez, J.L. Garcia, J.J. Diaz, S. Noriega, Ergonomic evaluation of work stations related with the operation of advanced manufacturing technology equipement: Two case of study. XV Congreso Internacional De Ergonomica SEMAC, (2009).

[12] E.R. Vieira, S.O. Kumar, Occupational risks factors identified and interventions suggested by welders and computer numeric control workers to control low back disorders in two steel companies. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 37 (2007).


[13] I.L. Nunes, P.M. Bush, (2012).

[14] B.R. Costa, E.R. Vieira, Risk Factors for Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders: A Systematic Review of Recent Longitudinal Studies, American Journal Of Industrial Medicine, (2009) 1-39.


[15] C.R. Reid, P.M. Bush, P. M., W. Karwowski, S.K. Durrani, Occupational postural activity and lower extremity discomfort: A review, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 40 (2010) 247–256.


[16] L. Punnett, D.H. Wegman, Work-related musculoskeletal disorders: the epidemiologic evidence and the debate, Journal of Electromyography and kinesiology, 14 (2004) 13-23.


[17] D. Miller, Effect of Knowledge About Exercise Duration on Ratings of Perceived Exertion and Mood, 6, (2012) 9-13.

[18] R. Escorpizo, Understanding work productivity and its application to work-related musculoskeletal disorders, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 38, (2008) 291-297.


[19] B.R. da Costa, E. R Vieira. Risk factor for WRMSDs: A systematic review of Longitudinal Study, American Journal Of Industrial Medicine, 2, (2009) 1-34.

[20] S.A. Moussavi-Najarkola, A. Khavanin, Work related musculoskeletal disorder of the upper limb among steel industry populations Acta Medica Iranica, 45(5), (2006) 405- 414.

[21] I. Halim, A Review On Health Effects Associated With Prolonged Standing In The Industrial Workplaces, IJRRAS, 8 (1), (2011) 14-21.

[22] T.P. Hutchinson, On ratings of comfort and exertion by visual display unit users and ratings of workplace layout and working posture by expert ergonomists, Journal of Applied Ergonomics, 39, (2008) 131–132.


[23] S.G. Karavatas, K. Tavakol, Concurrent validity of Borg's rating of perceived exertion in African-American young adults, employing heart rate as a standard, Internet journal of allied health science and practice, 3(1), (2005) 1-5.

[24] P. Spielholz, Calibrating Borg scale ratings of hand force exertion, Applied Ergonomics, 37, (2006) 615–618.


[25] R.F. Gearhart, J.R. Goss, K.M. Lagally, J. M Jakicic, J. Gallagher, R.J. Robertson, Standardized Scaling Procedures for Rating Perceived Exertion During Resistance Exercise, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 15(3), (2001) 320–325.


[26] E. Hall, P. Ekkekakis, S.J. Petruzzello, Is the relationship of rpe and to psychological dependent?, Official Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine, 5, (2005) 1365-1373.


[27] A.D. Egan, Sensation Rating of Perceived Exertion During High Intensity and Low Intensity Bouts of Resistance Exercise, UW-L Journal of Undergraduate Research, 4, (2003) 1-6.

[28] C.I.D. Luca, The use of surface electromyography in biomechanics, Journal Of Applied Biomechanics, 13, (1997) 135-156.

[29] M. González-Izal, A. Malanda, E. Gorostiaga, M. Izquierdo, M. (2012). Electromyographic models to assess muscle fatigue, Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, available on: http: / dx. doi. org/10. 1016/j. jelekin. 2012. 02. 019.


[30] J. Garza-Ulloa, H. Yu, T. Sarkodie-Gyan, P. Rangel, O. Adeoye, N.V. Hernandez, Mathematical Model To Predict Transition-To-Fatigue During Isometric Exercise On Muscles Of The Lower Extremities, Engineering Supplement: 2012 world Congress on Engineering and Technology, ( 2012) 15-18.


[31] A. Merlo, I. Campanini, Technical Aspects of Surface Electromyography for Clinicians, The Open Rehabilitation Journal, 3, (2010) 98-109.


[32] Y. Yoshitake, M. Miyazaki, Assessment of lower-back muscle fatigue using EMG, MMG and NIRS, 84, (2001) 174-179.

[33] K.A. Henneberg, Principles of electromyography, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, 2nd edition, CRC Press LLC, Montreal, 3 (2000) 1-12.

[34] J. Palep, Robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery, Journal of minimal access surgery, 5 (2009) 1-7.

[35] M. Anvari, D. Birch, F. Bamehriz, Robotic-assisted laparoscopic colorectal surgery, " Surgical Laparoscopy, 14(6) (2004) 311-315.


[36] R. Berguer, W. Smith, An ergonomic comparison of robotic and laparoscopic technique: the influence of surgeon experience and task complexity, Journal of Surgical Research, 134(1) (2006) 87-92.


[37] M.S. Uzer, N.A. Yilmaz, Real-time object tracking by using fuzzy controller for vision-based mobile robot, Scientific Research and Essays, 6(22) (2011) 4808-4820.

Fetching data from Crossref.
This may take some time to load.