Abstract: The science and technology of synthetic polymers has undergone explosive growth in the last few decades and the number of different polymeric materials in our built environment increases almost daily. All organic polymers burn and thus entail some measure of fire hazard in some situations. With increasing awareness of the nation’s fire problem it has become evident that the problems associated with flammability of polymeric materials must be attacked and solved. With the large number of polymers in commercial use. Problems of flammability and fire retardation are complex and multifaceted properties have to be developed, or existing polymers must be modified by addition of fire-retardant compounds. EPDM Rubber has many attractive properties such as low shrinkage, ease of cure and processing, excellent moisture, solvent and chemical resistance, good mechanical and electrical properties, as well as ease of modification to optimize the properties. However flammability is a major limitation in area requiring high flame resistance. Aluminum trihydroxide (ATH) due to its flame retardancy property is widely used as non reinforcing filler in wires and cable compound along with silica and carbon black. In this study carbon black is fully replaced by nano ATH to make environment friendly rubber products. However, the dispersion of nano particles in rubber is remarkably poor and hence techniques like melt mixing, solution mixing and master batching of nano ATH with EVA (Ethylene- vinyl acetate) are used to improve the dispersion of nano ATH particles in EPDM elastomers. In the current study we have used melt mixing for improving the dispersion of nano ATH and excellent results were obtained with optimum loading of nano ATH.
Abstract: The purpose. To work out an efficient technology and develop production of supersolid metal-ceramic powders and tools of high quality from processed raw materials.Methods. To stimulate the processes of defect formation and destruction of tungsten containing alloys under conditions of the effect of high pressure gradients and loading rate revivified by shock waves of different intensity.Results. This is the first time explosion energy has been applied to grind hard alloys in cylindrical capsules compared to the traditional methods of recycling. The material obtained in the capsules of impact compression was exposed to finely dispersed structure refinement in drum-type grinding mills with duration 20 times as short as that for the current grinding technology which allowed decreasing energy consumption for grinding process by 7.75 megawatt for one aggregate onlyScientific novelty. Shock waves generated by detonation of condensed explosives have been originally used as tools to stimulate the processes of defect formation of cemented carbide alloys at different scale level. Conditions of preserving the shocked product in axial symmetry facilities has been developed and provided.Practical implications. The use of shock waves in the technology of hard alloy revivification is the only possible method of processing large-size solids with significant reduction of energy consumption and quality-assured production.
Abstract: Global utilization of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) has increased steadily in the last decade which has imposed a huge demand for fish oil as it is currently the only source capable of sustaining the enormous commercial requirements this input worldwide. They are currently using various microorganisms to produce single cells oil (SCO) high in LC-PUFAs, within which highlights the thraustochytrids (TH). The TH is a group of marine protists (pseudofungi) with capacity to produce LC-PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In this study the chilean VAL-B1 strain was grown in glucose, starch and glycerol being obtained biomass production and LC-PUFAs. Biomass values obtained were 1.02 ± 0.32 g/L, 1.25 ± 0.44 g/L and 1.44 ± 0.27 g/L of glucose, glycerol and starch respectively. The profile of LC-PUFAs showed a percentage of omega-3 fatty acids on glucose of 59.34%, 61.50% in starch and glycerol of 47.86%. The greater this value was to omega-3 DHA when starch was used, with 68.16 mg/g being greater than 45.77 mg/g glycerol and 63.89 mg/g in glucose. Therefore, we conclude that VAL-B1 produces more biomass has greater value of omega-3 LC-PUFAs and greater concentration of DHA when starch is used as a source of substrate for cultures.
Abstract: In this article, the important development trend of car design will be discussed. At first, the purposes of the application of new materials and technologies in car design will be stated. Then the new kinds of energy which are applied in the future cars will be explored. The classification of new material and technology will be demonstrated. Furthermore, some examples will be described to show how new materials and new technologies can be used in car design. In additional, it is likely to be that new materials and processes will promote sustainable development of the car design. Based on current development of automotive design, it is necessary to predict some of the new materials and new technology will be applied in future car designs. It seems that new materials and new technologies will bring breakthrough in car design.
Abstract: Injection behaviors of internal combustion engines are very substantial fact that provides developments to future strategies about optimizing the engine and fuel parameters. During the combustion process, pilot diesel injection technique is more preferable option while using alternative gas fuels in a diesel engine. In this experimental study, a 3.6 L commercial, four stroke, four cylinders and mechanical fuel pump non-modified diesel test engine operated with hydroxy (HHO) and compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel mixtures under 25% and 75% (vol/vol), respectively. Diesel fuel injection quantities were reduced with the help of steeping motor devices which mounted on mechanical fuel pump plunger pin. Sensitive removes of steeping motor, plunger pin twisted clockwise 360°, 720° and 1080°, respectively. Comparisons of engine performance and exhaust emissions were explained briefly and illustrated via graphs. As a result, 720° clockwise twisted pin is the optimum point for experimental fuel pump plunger while using 25HHOCNG fuel mixtures.
Abstract: In this proposed work, the design and analysis of a flow sensor to be integrated into a micro-channel is presented. A finite element analysis is carried out to simulate fluid-structure interaction and estimate cantilever deflection under different fluidic flows at constant flow rate. The design of device is based on the determination of geometrical dimensions. A mathematical analysis describing the fluid mechanics and their interaction with the beam is also proposed. The mathematical model is done using finite-element analysis, and a complete formulation for design analysis is determined. Finite element method based Comsol Multiphysics simulations are used to optimize the design in order to determine the fluid velocities after interaction with the free end of the micro-cantilever beam. The device is successfully designed for sensing different fluids.
Abstract: The manufacturing industries have incredible contribution in the global economic growth and it has wide acknowledgment in the area of poverty mitigation. The manufacturing sector is also considered as one of the significant economic contributor in the Asian sub-continent for the past 100 years. Enhancement of productivity is an important factor for manufacturing industries to survive and to attain breakthroughs. By using time and motion study as tool, non-value added activities can be recognized and eliminated thereby productivity can be improved. Time and motion study is a tool to establish standard time for the processes including cycle time from observation with the allowance and rating factors. The main aim of the research is for systematic observation; process chart and stopwatch time study as research methodology. The article concludes that the successful application of motion and time study in industrial organizations is dependent on the training of the individuals who apply it. This article is also highlights enhancement of the Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE) of the autoclave process through the implementation of time and motion studies.
Abstract: The small scale sector is a symptom of India’s socio-economic development model and has met with the country’s long term expectations in terms of contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), industrial base, employment and exports. This sector forms a major part of Indian industrial base. Small and Medium scale industries contribute about 10% of total GDP. The Small and Medium Scale Industries (SMSI) are supported by the government and financial institutions like Micro Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME), Tamil Nadu Industrial Investment Corporation (TIIC), State Bank of India (SBI) etc., in terms of technical and financial assistance. Even then Micro and Small Enterprises (MSE) are lagging in infrastructure, skilled labour. In order to analyse the various risk factors in SMSI, the survey was conducted in 20 small and medium scale industries who are supplying their product to many Tier 1 companies and leading automobile companies of Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) in India. This paper brings out most critical supply chain risk factors exist in every business processes inside and outside the Small and Medium Enterprises (SME). Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is used to prioritize supply chain risk factors and also the SMSI owners and managers are advised to focus from the highest ranking critical factors to improve their technical and financial performance.
Abstract: The factors used to calculate the Forward Linkage, Backward Linkage and Real Benefit are the Total Environmental Costs. The highest total environmental cost was Iron and Steel that needs to be resolved immediately because it uses natural resources over the carrying capacity, higher environmental cost than standard, and contributes low real benefit. Iron and Steel, secondary steel products and non-residential building construction need to be monitored closely because they are able to link to other production sectors more than other production sectors, and they have high environmental cost. To design the sustainable development strategy of the country, therefore, need to use the information in this research to support the decision.