This study is trying to find kinematics differences between on-water rowing and its simulation on Concept2 ergometer, and explain biomechanical differences between on-water rowing and its simulation on Concept2 ergometer, which can affect the rowers motor control pattern and their on-water rowing technique. Positions of the handle, seat and trunk, shell acceleration were measured in single scull on both machines and on-water in four female rowers. It was found there is about 60-80% similarity between on-ergo and on-water rowing, the drive length on Concept2 ergometer is 10%-12% shorter than on-water, the stroke rate on-water is 10-15% higher than on Concept2 ergometer, legs drive was 4-6% longer on Concept2 ergometer than on-water. Significant differences were found in the handle velocity and shell acceleration profiles. Machines should be considered as a cross-training for rowers and can’t replace on-water rowing.