Advances in Experimental Mechanics VI

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Authors: Fabrice Pierron
Abstract: This paper presents a short overview of the state of the art and future challenges of the use of full-field measurements and inverse procedures to identify the constitutive mechanical parameters of a wide range of materials. It concentrates on the so-called Virtual Fields Method (VFM) which is a tool fully dedicated to the processing of full-field measurements. Some of the future challenges are briefly covered here, namely the design of test configurations and the application to damage assessment, high strain rate testing and biomaterials. Some examples are given and the main scientific issues briefly discussed.
Authors: Margaret Lucas, Andrea Cardoni, E. McCulloch, G. Hunter, Alan MacBeath
Abstract: Applications of power ultrasonics in engineering are growing and now encompass a wide variety of industrial processes and medical procedures. In the field of power ultrasonics, ultrasonic vibrations are used to effect a physical change in a medium. However, the mechanism by which a process can benefit from power ultrasonics is not common for all applications and can include one or more of such diverse mechanisms as acoustic cavitation, heating, microfracture, surface agitation and chemical reactions. This paper presents two applications of power ultrasonics involving some of these different characteristics by concentrating on two case studies involving material failure (ultrasonic cutting) and acoustic cavitation (bacterial inactivation).
Authors: T. Spalton, Rachel A Tomlinson, A.E. Garrard, S.B.M. Beck
Abstract: An investigation into three dimensional fluid flow has been conducted which combines the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations with the experimental phenomenon of Streaming Birefringence. A versatile flow channel was designed and built for use in conjunction with a circular polariscope. The experimental liquid used was an aqueous solution of a dye, commercially known as Milling Yellow NGS with the addition of Sodium Chloride. To extract the flow fields, six image phase stepping photoelasticity was used over backward and forward steps, and flows around a cylinder, and full-field fringe data were obtained. This method needs laminar flow regimes and the Reynolds number of the flow was around 10. To allow direct comparisons of the CFD solutions with the optical results, a macro (UDF) was written to interpret the flow field results from a (FLUENT6) CFD simulation. This integrated the shear stresses across the flow field and banded the results into fringes. A good correlation between the simulated fringes and the shearstrain rate was obtained from these observations.
Authors: J. Molimard, R. Cordero, A. Vautrin
Abstract: Optical Full Field Techniques (OFFT) are more and more utilized by mechanical laboratories. Among these methods, interferometry techniques (mainly composed of Speckle/Grating Interferometry or Speckle/Grating Shearography) are more difficult to use in a mechanical lab context, because of their sensitivity to external vibrations (except shearography), and because of the global lack of optical culture of mechanical engineers. Speckle-based methods are of great practical interest for the users, but their signal to noise ratio (SNR) is affected by the rigid body motion of the specimen. Here, the speckle decorrelation is minimized at local scale directly using the SNR. First, a shearography experiment is modeled to characterize the recorrelation procedure for a rigid body motion, a constant strain map and finally a high degree of localization. The mean noise level is found to be 6 times higher than a fully-correlated phase map for a 1 pixel speckle size. Last, a first application to a single-ply fabric composite lamina is shown. Resulting strain maps are of high quality with a very low spatial resolution (4 pixels). The local bending / global tension coupling effect is clearly put in evidence.
Authors: Rhys Pullin, Mark J. Eaton, James J. Hensman, Karen M. Holford, Keith Worden, S.L. Evans
Abstract: This work forms part of a larger investigation into fracture detection using acoustic emission (AE) during landing gear airworthiness testing. It focuses on the use of principal component analysis (PCA) to differentiate between fracture signals and high levels of background noise. An artificial acoustic emission (AE) fracture source was developed and additionally five sources were used to generate differing AE signals. Signals were recorded from all six artificial sources in a real landing gear component subject to no load. Further to this, artificial fracture signals were recorded in the same component under airworthiness test load conditions. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to automatically differentiate between AE signals from different source types. Furthermore, successful separation of artificial fracture signals from a very high level of background noise was achieved. The presence of a load was observed to affect the ultrasonic propagation of AE signals.
Authors: Juan Alfonso Beltrán-Fernández, Luis Héctor Hernández-Gómez, R.G. Rodríguez-Cañizo, E.A. Merchán-Cruz, G. Urriolagoitia-Calderón, A. González-Rebatú, M. Dufoo-Olvera, G. Urriolagoitia-Sosa
Abstract: This paper presents the modelling of the effects due to load conditions on the cervical section defined between C3 and C5 after a cervical plate implant is used to transfer the compression loads from C3 to C5 as C4 is considered to be damaged as a result of a medical condition. For this study, three different scenarios which describe the common motion condition of the head-neck system are modelled. The first one refers to the effect of the head weight over the considered section. In the second case the average patient weight is supported by C3 and C5 vertebrae. The last case simulates extreme loading conditions as vertebrae lesions occur when these are compressed beyond its failure limit; the ultimate stress to compression load failure value is applied to C3. The stability and mechanical behaviour of cervical plates under compression loading conditions is evaluated using the Finite Element Method (FEM). Cervical plates are useful to restore stability of the spine by improving the inter-vertebral fusion, particularly when the cervical body has been damaged. The results show that the stresses on the plate and fixation screws, for the three cases, are within the elastic range. Conversely, it has to be considered that cortical and trabecular bone densities vary from one patient to another due to a number of factors, which can influence the fixation conditions of the screws. In the case of this analysis, healthy bone conditions were considered and the obtained results show that the risk of the integrity of the screwimplant- vertebrae system is not compromised.
Authors: T. Kihara
Abstract: The stress analysis for a model with initial stresses, which we term a residual stress model, is performed by digital photoelasticity. The stresses applied on the residual stress model are obtained by analyzing both the initial stresses and the resultant stresses. The method used for analyzing the stresses applies the principle of superposition of the stress to photoelasticity, which is a well-known technique in the field of elasticity. In the digital photoelasticity technique used, the principal stress direction and the relative phase retardation  are analyzed by photoelastic techniques using linearly polarized light. This technique overcomes the phase difference error associated with a quarter-wave plate by employing incident light at three different wavelengths, and using an unwrapping technique that allows and  to be determined using the arctangent function. A residual stress model produced by a disk containing frozen stresses that was subjected to a diametral compressive load at an angle of 31 was used to experimentally test this method. The values of the stresses of the loaded disk model analyzed were in good agreement with corre- sponding theoretical values at all locations far from the loading points of the residual stress model.

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