The Behaviour of Fibre-Metal Laminates under High Velocity Impact Loading with Different Stacking Sequences of Al Alloy


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The high velocity impact response of composite laminated plates has been experimentally investigated using a nitrogen gas gun. Tests were undertaken on fibre-metal laminate (FML) structures based on Kevlar-29 fiber/epoxy-Alumina resin with different stacking sequences of 6061-T6 Al plates. Impact testing was conducted using a cylindrical shape of 7.62 mm diameter steel projectile at 400m/s velocity, which was investigated to achieve complete perforation of the target. The numerical parametric study of ballistic impacts caused by similar conditions in experimental work is undertaken to predict the ballistic limit velocity, energy absorbed by the target, and comparisons between simulations by using ANSYS AUTODYN 3D v.12.1 software and experimental work to study the effects of the shape of the projectile with different (4, 8, 12, 16 and 20mm) thicknesses on the ballistic limit velocity. While only one thickness was used with 24mm of back stacking sequence, it was not penetrated. The sequence of the Al plate position (front, middle and back) inside laminate plates of the composite specimen was also studied. The Al back stacking sequence plate for the overall results obtained was the optimum structure to resist the impact loading. The simulation results obtained of the residual velocity hereby are in good agreement with the experimental results with an average error of 1.8%. The energy absorption was obtained with 7.3% and 2.7% of the back to front and back to middle of the Al stacking sequence respectively. Hence, the back Al stacking sequence is considered the optimum position for resisting the impact loading. The data showed that these novel sandwich structures exhibit excellent energy-absorbing characteristics under high-velocity impact loading conditions. Hence, it is considered suitable for aerospace applications.



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Edited by:

R. Varatharajoo, E. J. Abdullah, D. L. Majid, F. I. Romli, A. S. Mohd Rafie and K. A. Ahmad




A.A. Ramadhan et al., "The Behaviour of Fibre-Metal Laminates under High Velocity Impact Loading with Different Stacking Sequences of Al Alloy", Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vol. 225, pp. 213-218, 2012

Online since:

November 2012




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