A Novel High-Pass Filters Implementation by Fully Differential Op Amp Integrators
The design of low-pass and bandpass filters is often based on the leapfrog method which, in these cases, yields integrator-based structures. Using the leapfrog signal flow graph (SFG) for the simulation of high-pass filters leads to a differentiator-based structure which could be implemented by Gm-C or CCII conveniently. However, when we use Op amp RC integrators for good linearity, we have to use integrators, and not differentiators, for reasons related to the excessive noise behavior of the latter. This paper presents a new leapfrog SFG implementation by fully differential Op amp integrators, which combines good high-frequency properties with good noise properties. The direct SFG simulation method and single-ended output Op amp can also based on integrators, but all of them will lead to a relatively high circuit complexity and a high noise level. A design example is included, with comparisons of gain responses and noise densities.
H. D. Zhang et al., "A Novel High-Pass Filters Implementation by Fully Differential Op Amp Integrators", Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vols. 229-231, pp. 1531-1534, 2012