Biaxial Ratcheting Response of SS 316 Steel
Ratcheting is one of the challenging phenomena that needs to be investigated for the Fast breeder reactor (FBRs), to arrive at the optimum structural dimensions that are safe and yet do not have undue redundancy. Austenitic stainless steel is the principal structural material for Indian FBR. Preliminary assessment indicates that there is a need to demonstrate that the main load carrying vessel made of this material can provide sufficient safety margin against ratcheting under biaxial loading conditions. This exercise calls for carrying out many simulated experiments, particularly with biaxial tension torsion specimens to generate adequate data for developing robust constitutive models to predict ratcheting. Accordingly, many biaxial tension-torsion experiments for austenitic stainless steel pipes were conducted and the best results have been reported here. The mechanical behavior of this material has been reported for a given axial tensile stress superimposed with a given range of cyclic shear stress for many cycles of loading. Rectangular rosette is used for capturing the biaxial response. Important material responses like cyclic hardening and biaxial ratcheting have been experimentally observed. Maximum accumulation of 2700 μ axial strain has been observed for a loading condition of constant axial stress of 102 MPa super imposed with a cyclic variation of shear stress amplitude of 120 MPa over 2450 cycles. The amount of progressive accumulation of axial strain was found to be directly dependent on the number of cycles. The observed rate of axial strain accumulation found decreased with increase in number of cycles. All these results are presented in detail in this paper and important conclusions that are useful in modeling the observed behavior are discussed.
R.A.W. Mines and J.M. Dulieu-Barton
R. S. Kumar et al., "Biaxial Ratcheting Response of SS 316 Steel", Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vols. 24-25, pp. 207-211, 2010