Robotics in Theory and Practice

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Authors: Mikuláš Hajduk, Peter Jenčík, Jaromír Jezný, Ladislav Vargovčík
Abstract: The article describes the development and defines the change of approach in the development of today's industrial robotics, provides an overview of the latest trends in the field of industrial robotics. Until now, the industrial robots have been deployed to less demanding work environments to perform "only" handling operations and to synchronize the operations of individual facilities. Now they are undergoing a major innovation process, the bulk of which is focused on increasing their intelligence and multi-functionality.
Authors: Alexey Kolker, Alexander Winkler, Jozef Suchý
Abstract: In this paper the stabilization of the well known inverted pendulum problem by visual control is presented. The pendulum is mounted on the flange of an articulated robot arm. It is observed by camera and its angle of inclination is computed by image processing on a PC. For stabilization a state space controller realized with the standard robot controller is used. In summary, this system can be seen as an example of a robot with visual control. The inverted pendulum is used because it is an adequate controlled system to demonstrate advanced control algorithms. Its implementation with a robot results in some more restrictions in comparison with the pendulum mounted on a linear drive, e.g. in lower acceleration, smaller traversing range and the relatively high cycle time of the commercial robot controller. Furthermore, the integration of the camera in the closed loop control instead of an angular transmitter makes the successful realization more difficult.
Authors: Štefan Havlík, Jaroslav Hricko
Abstract: The problem of multi d.o.f. positioning devices based on compact compliant kinematic mechanisms is to guarantee the desired positional accuracy in static and especially in dynamic modes of operation. The study of accuracy and performance analysis of high speed devices is made in this paper. The influence of differences between stiffness and damping coefficients in actuated directions as well as mutual cross couplings between them are discussed in details and performance characteristics of such complex systems are simulated. As proposed the problem of improving accuracy can be solved by insertion of the compensation member into control system that could be integrated in parallel or serial way. The presented approach enables to verify the dynamical range of operation for small / micro positioning devices performing precise trajectory following tasks.
Authors: Marcel Horák, František Novotný
Abstract: The paper analyses possibilities to use new materials having a high degree of adhesion for designing vacuum gripping elements with a view to increase the radial capacity and at the same time to preserve the compressed air consumption or the vacuum level. Structural modification of the suction cup is presented with a bearing supporting plate having a material with an adhesion layer on the contact boundary and allowing the down-pressure to be regulated depending on mechanical properties of the object kept. In conclusion the results achieved are summarized illustrating a marked increase of the radial load capacity with regard to the defined vacuum level and the degree of shifting in the contact profile compared with the standard suction cups with a similar geometrical diameter in relation to the contact surface.
Authors: František Duchoň, Dominik Huňady, Martin Dekan, Andrej Babinec
Abstract: Optimal navigation is a subset of robot navigation in an environment. It is also known as a path planning. The aim of the optimal navigation is to choose optimal path between the initial state and the desired state of the robot. There are many methods how to choose the optimal path. In this article A* algorithm was chosen, because it is widely applied. The main idea was to propose an algorithm, which is able to select the optimal path in a typical indoor environment. Despite that our real robot uses metric maps and A* algorithm is primarily designated for the topological maps, it was verified in the experiments that this algorithm can be used for off-line path planning.
Authors: František Novotný, Marcel Horák, Martin Plavec
Abstract: The paper submitted presents a new-generation mobile platform specially designed for the service robot destined for motion on vertical oriented walls, e.g. on glass façade systems of tower buildings. The platform has been developed goal-directly as a motive system allowing special technological extensions to be installed with a view to inspecting, assembling or washing. It uses a stepping principle alternating step by step the motion of legs and body. A holding system was created based on the vacuum principle with greater number of parallel suction cups associated with the smart vacuum technique. Component rotational motive units are fitted with servo-actuators with electro motors being controlled on the level of modular systems based on an embedded PC.
Authors: Macedon Ganea, Constantin Bungau, Rares Pancu
Abstract: The Faculty IMT (Technological and Managing Engineering into mechanic domain) from Oradea University decided to develop by retrofitting activity one old second hand Horizontal Machining Centre from the Laboratory, in order to obtain the newest level as the most economic investment, able to answer at the educational conditions, according to the academic curriculum for bachelor, master and even PhD levels. The retrofitting activity was based on Fanuc components (CNC, AC drives & servomotors, PLC, measuring system, etc) on the basic machine, but also the machine CNC extension to “five axes machining concept”, having now more supplementary two CNC axes. On the other hand, the machine extension from machining centre to flexible cell, introduced new components as: load station, internal transport system by conveyor, Regal lager, two robots (able to assure the flow of resources).
Authors: Andrzej Piotrowski, Tadeusz Nieszporek
Abstract: Information communications networks, and especially their industrial versions (field networks), are an inseparable element of contemporary control systems. They enable pieces of modern industrial equipment to be coupled into a common system. In the case of older-generation equipment (universal one-stand CNC machine tools, manipulators, robots), their extension and integration in either dispersed or centralized control system is possible. As a result of modernization, it is possible to create a production line that will be built based on classic CNC machine tools and operated by manipulators or robots using network solutions and PC computers.
Authors: Jerzy Zajac, Adam Slota, Krzysztof Krupa, Tomasz Wiek, Grzegorz Chwajol, Waldemar Małopolski
Abstract: The paper presents mechanical, safety and positioning aspects of design of a three-wheel, battery powered, automated guided vehicle. AGV is driven by a DC motor integrated with the wheel. The chosen kinematic structure is compact and assures a high degree of maneuverability. Principles of operation and general capabilities of safety laser scanner SICK S300 were discussed. AGV is equipped with laser localization system SICK NAV300. The paper presents some issues concerning implementation of this equipment in the AGV built at the Production Engineering Institute of Cracow University of Technology.

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