Intact Ultrathin Ni Films Fabricated by Electroplating with Supercritical CO2 Emulsion
Ultrathin (2 emulsion (SCE). Incomplete coverage of the Cu plate, the working electrode, by electroplated Ni and non-uniform Ni films with defects were obtained when conventional electroplating at 1 A/dm2 with 30 sec of deposition time was used. When electroplating with SCE (ESCE) was applied, complete coverage, defect-free and uniform UTNFs were obtained. SEM and AFM showed surface morphology of the UTNFs was covered by spherical-shaped particles with ~10 nm in diameter, which was expected to be individual Ni grains because the size was consistent with grain size of Ni films reported when ESCE was applied. High H2 solubility in CO2, periodic-plating-characteristic after applying ESCE, and improved transport efficiency of the reactive species are believed to be the main reasons to cause effects of grain refinement and suppression in formation of the defects. Thickness of the UTNFs was 11.97±1.82 nm when the deposition time was 15 sec, and the thickness increased to 38.45±1.71 nm when the deposition time was increased to 45 sec.
T. F. M. Chang et al., "Intact Ultrathin Ni Films Fabricated by Electroplating with Supercritical CO2 Emulsion", Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vols. 284-287, pp. 147-151, 2013