Gaussian processes (GP) is a machine learning method which has become a power tool for solving highly nonlinear problems. Aiming to the fact that it is still difficult to reasonably determine the fuel consumption per 100km for automobile engine，the model based on GP machine learning was proposed for prediction the fuel consumption per 100km for automobile engine. According to few training samples，the nonlinear mapping relationship between the fuel consumption per 100km and its influencing factors was established by GP machine learning model. The model was applied to a real engineering. The results of study showed that GP machine learning model is feasible, effective and simple to implement for prediction the fuel consumption. It has the merits of self - adaptive parameters determination and excellent capacity for solving nonlinear small samples problems.