Dynamic Load Coefficient of Tyre Forces from Truck Axles
This study aims to predict the Dynamic Load Coefficient (DLC) of tyre forces from truck axles. Dynamic Load Coefficient is frequently used to characterise the dynamic loads generated by axles. It is a simple measurement of the dynamic variation magnitude of the axle load, for a specific combination of road roughness and speed. Under normal operating conditions, the DLCs value is typically in the range of 0.05-0.3, and close to zero when the trucks wheels are moving over a perfectly smooth road. To achieve the objectives of this study, which is to determine the DLCs value for seven different types of axles, a simple validated quarter-truck model was excited by a random road surface profile, in order to simulate a vehicle-road interaction. Points are equally spaced along the simulated road to generate dynamic loadings over a broad range of truck speeds. Multiple trucks gross-weight conditions were used to present realistic traffic behaviour. The results showed that irregular road profiles, exciting the vehicle as it travelled, caused continually changing tyre forces. Also, dynamic loading was seen to be fundamentally influenced by the type of suspension (i.e., air and steel), loading condition, and vehicle speed. For example, the DLC value of the tyre forces of the quarter-truck fitted with a steel suspension was found to be more than twice that of the truck fitted with an air suspension. Tyre forces of the one-third laden truck were more aggressive than any other loading condition, due to the uncertain body-bounce generated by the truck, which was strongly dependent on surface irregularities. At low speed, the DLC was greatly decreased if the load was increased. Furthermore, DLC value was always lower for trucks with air suspension over steel suspension, for the same load and vehicle speed. However, air suspension efficiency was clearly better for higher axle loads.
Weijun Yang and Jianguo Liang
R. Buhari et al., "Dynamic Load Coefficient of Tyre Forces from Truck Axles", Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vols. 405-408, pp. 1900-1911, 2013