Chuanxiong, as a medicinal plant, has been demonstrated useful for the treatment of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases in China. The physicochemical characterization of Chuanxiong particles was greatly influenced by ultrafine pulverization. To study the physicochemical characterization of Chuanxiong, the raw plant material of Chuanxiong was ground to 6 μm particles by HSCS (High Speed Centrifugal Sheering) pulverizer. The micron particles were characterized by optical microscope and SEM. Ferulic acid is one of active ingredients of Chuanxiong, and its extraction yield was determined to evaluate the chemical characterization of Chuanxiong powder. Ferulic acid was analyzed by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). The results showed that after ultrafine pulverization, the plant cell walls were broken into pieces and the extraction yield of ferulic acid was increased by 7.739% compared with the normal particles.