Abstract: Nowadays, natural fiber is an interesting option and it is the most widely applied fiber in composite technology. The natural fibers are used in most of the industries and are increasingly being considered as reinforcements for polymer-matrix composites because they are perceived to have sustainability value. This research paper aims to enlighten the existing development in natural fiber composites in automotive applications. Additionally, this research paper reviews the related papers from the year 2006 until 2013. Finally, a summary of selected products that have been identified by car manufacturers were identified.
Abstract: A zero dimensional thermodynamic model simulation is developed to simulate the combustion characteristics and performance of a four stroke homogeneous compression combustion ignition (HCCI) engine fueled with gasoline. This model which applies the first law of thermodynamics for a closed system is inclusive of empirical model for predicting the important parameters for engine cycles: the combustion timing and mass burnt fraction during the combustion process. The hypothesis is the increasing intake temperature can reduce the combustion duration and the fuel consumption at wide range of equivalence ratio. The intake temperature were increased from 373-433 K with increment of 20 K. The engine was operated over a range of equivalence ratios of 0.2 to 0.5 at constant engine speed of 1200 rpm and intake pressure of 89,950 k Pa. Simulations were performed using Simulink® under different engine operating conditions. Increasing intake temperature allows reducing the combustion duration by 0.99 °CA and 0.26 °CA at equivalence ratios of 0.2 and 0.5, respectively. The brake specific fuel consumption decreases about 6.09%-5.76% at 0.2-0.5 of equivalence ratios. Thus, fuel consumption can be reduced by increasing intake temperature.
Abstract: Nowadays, weight reduction is great opportunity for automotive components design due to meet the structural strength without reducing the components safety. A classical try-and-error approach to design the automotive components in industries is inadequate which mean new methods are needed to enhance the design process. An improvement of the component can be achieved by adopting suitable optimization techniques at the early design stage. In this paper, the problem of automotive component design; steel wheel rim design in a view of weight reduction was tackled by means of shape optimization method. Design methodology was proposed to the original design of selected wheel rim and was continued optimized them by various reduction targets. The optimized design together with the datum has been analyzed and the results were compared and discussed. Shape optimization with 15% of reduction target at steel wheel rim was the best optimal design and it was met the design criteria and safety factor. By applying shape optimization, weight of steel wheel also has been reduced by using proper reduction target. The methodology has been proven to be successful in finding innovative and efficient layouts for automotive components design.
Abstract: This study is concerned with evaluating the seaworthiness of ferry services between Labuan and Mainland (Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei) Labuan provides services to 2500 passengers a day Department and the number spikes during festive seasons. The audit tools were adopted from the Marine Department and surveyor list. Nine ferry services were audited for seaworthiness based on ship's structure, machinery, fire safety measures, remote control and warning system, life saving appliances, radio communications, remote control and warning system, safety of navigations and accommodation and escape measures. The audit shows that the ships generally comply to the rules on minimum requirements for life saving appliances (LSA) at medium level except on some boats the Hydrostatics Release Unit (HRU) were wired and this cam prevent the life-raft to self-inflate when submerged in water. It is suggested that standard design for speedboat hull needs to be introduced.
Abstract: Remote controlled cars currently in the market only offer one transmission mode. They are less efficient in acceleration while the torque cannot be increase during the low speed. Although improvement has been made by upgrading to two speed transmissions, but the gearing system is still not sufficient to maximize the speed of nitro engine. With a third gear, the car has the potential to increase its velocity and fully utilize its engine power. This paper focus on the transmission system model for 1/10th scale nitro engine which can produce up to 30,000 rpm. The third gears has shown significant improvement of the car theoretical speed up to 210 km/h.
Abstract: The effects of geometrical shapes are believed to play significant role in the deformation of metal foams under impact loading. This research was carried out to investigate the deformation behaviour of a single cellular cell of metal foam with different geometrical shapes. The simulation analyses were done on various two dimensional shapes with the consideration of the material properties. Two parameter values had been studied to determine the dynamic deformation behaviour of various geometrical shapes i.e. the internal energy and kinetic energy. It is found that, the geometrical shapes have shown significant effects on the dynamic deformation of single metal foam cell. It is hoped that this study could contribute significant result to the research of the metal foams especially in analyzing the shape effects to the behaviour of the metal foam under impact loading.
Abstract: This study analyzed the crash performance of partially filled column in comparison to an empty and fully filled side member. Crash simulation is carried out by impacting a car moving at 48 km/hr to a rigid wall at an angle of 30 degrees. It was found that the partially filled side member is capable of absorbing almost the same amount of energy as the fully filled side member at lower mass.
Abstract: Rising fuel costs increase the importance of CVT powertrains in the automotive industry. Their benefit is that they allow an engine to operate at any condition which motivates development of fuel economy mode control strategies. In this work, an engine map is multiplied by the efficiency of a hydrostatic continuously variable transmission (HCVT). Therefore, the map is pictured in a 3D Cartesian space which is functioned into 3 parameters of indicated engine torque, engine speed, and transmission ratio. Operation of the engine powertrain system can be set to support any required power and speed of the vehicle at the highest efficiency point. The study examines a 900 cc. gasoline engine connected to the HCVT. To generate the operating range of the engine, the engine speed and hydraulic pressure were controlled by an electronic throttle and pump swash plate variation, respectively. The operating range is 3.353 - 10.442 kW. This power corresponds to a vehicle ground speed of 43.065 61.488 km/hr through a gear ratio of 0.5-1.5. Consequently, the system efficiency map was created and then used to construct the best operating path according to the required driving cycle. The points on the path were selected by the concept of the highest overall efficiency in the 3D map. As a result, the optimal operation path was found by connecting each point which is directed to the best solution for vehicle operation.
Abstract: The paper presents a literature review of the efficacy of side passive safety in the event of lateral collision and the latest development of side airbag. According to the latest Global Status Report on Road Safety 2013, the total number of death every year due to road accident still maintained in a huge number of 1.24 million. Malaysia is one of the countries having highest estimated road traffic death rate of 25 per 100,000 populations. Moreover, 5% growth annually of fatalities rate forecasted. In general, lateral collision or side impact is the second most common vehicle crash type which takes almost 10,000 occupant deaths each year. Side airbags were introduced into vehicle firstly in 1995 in order to improve occupants injury. It is statically proven that combination of head with thorax side airbag is very effective in reducing occupants fatalities rate, however thorax only airbag is less significant. With the aid from Computer Aided Engineer (CAE) software, designer can further improve airbag design and optimize its performance in order to find the best combination of design parameter such as of area of air vent, Time-To-Fire (TTF), operating pressure of the inflator gas and many more, while design cycle time can be reduced significantly up to 40%. Nevertheless, people are afraid that side airbag deployment load may hurt children and small size female seated in Out-Of-Position (OOP). Researcher could resolve it by adopting the latest Computer Fluid Design (CFD) airbag simulation technique which have a better simulation result of OOP load, since CFD method provide more realistic airbag deployment simulations especially in the first few milliseconds which are significant in OOP test.