Advances in Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

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Authors: Mohd Hafzi Mohd Isa, Yahaya Ahmad, Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim, Wong Shaw Voon
Abstract: In line with the Vehicle Pillar of the United Nations Decade of Action for Global Road Safety 2011 2020 in elevating motor vehicle safety standards and encouraging a market for safer vehicles in the region, a new car assessment program for Southeast Asian countries (ASEAN NCAP) was recently established. During the first phase of the program, seven popular car models were selected and tested according to European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) protocol on offset frontal crash test. Thus, this paper reports the results for the completed phase along with the ratings for adult and child occupant protections. Future developments of this program as well as manufacturer responses are also discussed.
Authors: M.S. Abdul Aziz, M.Z. Abdullah, Kamarul Arifin Ahmad
Abstract: This paper presents two dimensional fluid structure interaction (FSI) CFD analysis on the effect of skin thickness and Reynolds number on the aerodynamic performance of NACA 643-218 airfoil. Numerical investigations were performed using FLUENT 6.3 fluid flow solver and ABAQUS 6.8-1 structural solver. Coupling of both solvers in real time mode was accomplished with the Mesh based parallel Code Coupling Interface (MpCCI 3.1). The predicted and experimental results were found to be in excellent match. Generally, the results showed that the aerodynamic lift increases while drag decreases with the decrease of membrane thickness.
Authors: M. Adlan Abdullah, Farid Nasir Ani, Masjuki Hassan
Abstract: This study investigated the effects of palm oil methyl ester biodiesel blends on a common rail passenger car engine in terms of performance, oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and smoke emissions. Up to 40% biodiesel blend was used in this study. As expected, running on biodiesel reduces full load torque and power. The fuel consumption increased up to 10%, particularly at part loads. On the other hand, the thermal efficiency only exhibit small difference between the fuels. As much as 46% reduction in smoke emissions was observed at 40% biodiesel content. The NOx emission was shown to be slightly increased under certain operating conditions at part loads, while showing reduction at other conditions. In general, biodiesel showed more significant effects on the performance and emissions at part load conditions. Thus, low and medium speed/load region was proposed as an area where improvement by injection strategies optimization can be made.
Authors: Shukriah Abdullah, Aziz Abdul Faieza
Abstract: Headlamp assembly entailed a complex assembly process and error in assembled can result in technical problem and higher reject rate at the end of the assembly process. A study has been conducted, in one of the automotive headlamp assembly in Malaysia, where there are numerous defect detected during the assembly process, such as metal spacing missing, wrong model housing, wrong sticker affix, wrong orientation with a total of 80% defects detected. Currently the headlamps are assembled with no dimensional control, results in high physical nonconformity product. The main objective of this project is to identify potential failure in headlamp assembly process. The approach used was risk assessment tool which is Process Failure Mode and Effect. This work also developed the corrective action plan for accurate ranking of Failure Modes by Risk Priority Number-based method and implement it to the process assembly. The result showed that there was increased of 5% in preventive action and 4% increment of the detection action
Authors: Airul Sharizli, Rahizar Ramli, Mohamed Rehan Karim, Ahmad Saifizul Abdullah
Abstract: Increasing number of fatalities caused by road accidents involving heavy vehicles every year has raised the level of concern and awareness on road safety situation in developing countries like Malaysia. This study attempts to explore the influences of vehicle dynamics characteristics such as vehicle weight and travel speed on its safety braking distance. This study uses a kind of complex virtual prototyping software to simulate vehicle dynamics and its braking performance characteristics. The software was used to generate braking distance data for various vehicle types under various loads and speed condition. The generated data was grouped according to GVW and then analyzed by two-way ANOVA to evaluate its relationship to braking distance. The finding of this study implies that the speed and GVW of various vehicle classifications has a significant effect to the heavy vehicle braking distance.
Authors: Abdullah Adibah, Othman Inayatullah, Masuri Siti Ujila, A.A. Nuraini, Sahari B. Barkawi, Nordin Jamaludin
Abstract: Single-grade engine oil viscosity experience changes influenced by temperature and pressure. However, in reality, the viscosity of engine oil is also affected by age and it has been proven in earlier studies through the viscosity model of the UKM Equation (ηUKM). In this mathematical model, the viscosity of the engine oil is manipulated by the factors of temperatue and time. Both of this factors relies fully on laboratory data. Based on this hypothesis, a model of the viscosity which is based on a mathematical model have been developed whereby the technical temperature factor value and technical time factor are obtained through engine oils technical data such as the density, viscosity index and kinematic viscosity; technical parameter displayed in technical statements of every engine oil. This model is named the viscosity model of viscosity index numerical order (ηVIno) and the estimation of viscosity obtained through the ηVIno was found to not exhibit any significant deviation from the actual viscosity of the oil.
Authors: Uzair Rosli, M.K.A.M. Ariffin, S.M. Sapuan, Shamsuddin Sulaiman
Abstract: This study established a support tool framework for TRIZ practitioners to specify the problems statement stage in TRIZ method through utilizing the Multi Criteria Decision Method (MDCM) of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The proposed framework was analyzed and evaluated by a case study of car’s dashboard. From a list of problems and customer complaints gathered by survey, the problems were evaluated through AHP method and resulted only three major problems that should be highlighted for further steps. Results indicated that the improvement design generated by both methods could came out an appropriate new design effectively and avoided the cost waste during the product design and development processes.
Authors: A.R.M.H. Rashid, S.A.S. Mondol, M.H. Shams, A.T.M.F.S. Anik
Abstract: Many developing countries, like Bangladesh, have many three wheeler vehicles as a popular cheap transport option. Usually the driver seats of such vehicles are locally designed without considering ergonomics. Thus, drivers of such vehicles suffer from discomfort in the short term and back pain and other ailments in the long run. So if driver’s seats in such three wheelers could be designed considering ergonomics, it would be beneficial for them. This paper describes the design of the seat of a three wheeler vehicle considering ergonomics and low cost available materials.
Authors: K. Syakirah, A.A. Faieza, M. Rosnah Yusuff
Abstract: A restraint system to holdan infant between 0 – 24 monthsold ona commercial passenger aircraft has not been improvedsince the early development of the aviation industry. The ergonomic featureof the seat that fits the infant was not extensively studied compared to the development of the seat with restraint devices for adult passenger. The objective of this paper is to review the current regulations regarding restraint devices for infants in an aircraft. It also attempts to explore the ergonomics of current and new technology of infant seat with restraint system.
Authors: Nazrul Idzham Kasim, Z. Leman, Mohd Azam Musa, B.T. Hang Tuah bin Baharudin
Abstract: This project is related to the improvement of cab transfer process from Painted Body Storage (PBS) area to General Assembly (GA) line. The objectives of this project are to eliminate the root cause of cab defect and to streamline the transfer process with the reduction of process cycle time. From the current process study, it is found that the lifting method causes the quality defect to the cab and the usage of different type of trolley between PBS and GA contribute to the high cycle time. The new process design has been introduced from the findings with the use of towing method and the use of common trolley for both PBS area and GA line. With the new and improved cab transfer process, the cab changing process can be eliminated. Hence, the number of operator required has been reduced, from two operators to only one operator. A trial run has been conducted with a prototype trolley and a forklift. The objectives of this project are fulfilled with the new towing method that eliminate the quality defect and the use of common trolley for both PBS and GA line resulting new cycle time of 7.13 minutes per unit from 9.77 minutes per unit. Further studies are needed for commissioning and monitoring to the new cab transfer process with the actual trolley and tow tug or buggy.

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