Interdependency of Cleaner Production and Cleaner Application: Towards an Integrated Assessment on Appropriate Technology


Article Preview

Resources localization is one of the unique concerns of Appropriate Technology (AT) development. It has become a thought-provoking driver to related studies, meaning that there are wide-ranging opportunities to conduct researches, including ones on materials-related issues. Also, following the global concerns on environmental issues, assessment on environmental impacts imposed in AT life-cycle is interesting to be studied. Particularly, this study attempts to investigate potential impacts imposed by materials usage in AT. It is conducted by comparing and contrasting common approach in doing cleaner production to the implication of AT in providing cleaner application. This study aims to provide an integrated assessment framework for calculating environmental impacts from materials usage by incorporating the characteristics of AT life-cycle into account. The first finding points out the interdependency of cleaner production and cleaner application, meaning that there is a need of cleaner production in the manufacturing and construction process of any material/component/assembling in an AT; besides, the AT has to be designed to perform cleaner application, yet without reducing its performance and intention in localizing materials. Furthermore, the second finding pushes the first finding forward through an integrated environmental assessment diagram that covers materials production and application until the end of AT life-cycle, including disposal phase and predicted degradability of materials. By looking at common approaches that focused on the assessment of only cleaner production, this study is moving toward an integrated environmental assessment on an AT by covering both cleaner production and application to form a complete AT life-cycle assessment.



Edited by:

Denni Kurniawan and Fethma M. Nor




C. P.M. Sianipar et al., "Interdependency of Cleaner Production and Cleaner Application: Towards an Integrated Assessment on Appropriate Technology", Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vol. 606, pp. 281-285, 2014

Online since:

August 2014




* - Corresponding Author

[1] E.F. Schumacher, Small Is Beautiful: Economics as if People Mattered, Hartley & Marks Publishers, Virginia, US, (1973).

[2] E.K. Yanful, Appropriate Technologies for Environmental Protection in the Developing World, Springer, Dordrecht, NL, (2009).

[3] C.P.M. Sianipar, G. Yudoko, K. Dowaki, A. Adhiutama, Design methodology for Appropriate Technology: Engineering as if people mattered, Sustainability. 5 (2013) 3382-3425.

DOI: 10.3390/su5083382

[4] C.P.M. Sianipar, K. Dowaki, G. Yudoko, A. Adhiutama, Seven pillars of survivability: Appropriate Technology with a human face, Eur. J. Sustain. Dev. 2. 4 (2013) 1-18.

[5] B. Hazeltine, C. Bull, Appropriate Technology: Tools, Choices, and Implications. Academic Press, California, US, (1999).

[6] C.P.M. Sianipar, G. Yudoko, K. Dowaki, Materials research in Appropriate Technology: In the midst of science, engineering, and technology, Key Eng. Mat. 594 (2014) 334-338.

DOI: 10.4028/

[7] G. Kjaerheim, Cleaner production and sustainability, J. Clean. Prod. 13. 4 (2005) 329-339.

[8] M.K. Ghose, Promoting cleaner production in the Indian small-scale mining industry, J. Clean. Prod. 11. 2 (2003) 167-174.

DOI: 10.1016/s0959-6526(02)00036-7

[9] C.P.M. Sianipar, K. Dowaki, G. Yudoko, Environmental impacts of Appropriate Technology: The system boundaries, Adv. Sci. Eng. Med. 6. 1 (2014) 141-142.

DOI: 10.1166/asem.2014.1460

[10] G.D. Catalano, Engineering, Poverty, and the Earth, Morgan & Claypool, California, US, (2007).

[11] C.P.M. Sianipar, G. Yudoko, K. Dowaki, Environmental forensics on Appropriate-Technology-enhanced supply chain of rural commodities, in: A.Z. Aziz et al. (Eds. ), From Sources to Solutions, Springer, Singapore, 2014, pp.55-60.

DOI: 10.1007/978-981-4560-70-2_11

[12] C.P.M. Sianipar, G. Yudoko, K Dowaki, Physiological concept: Visible modeling for feasible design, Appl. Mech. Mater. 493 (2014) 432-437.

DOI: 10.4028/

[13] C.P.M. Sianipar, H. Taufiq, H.R. Estiningtyas, K. Dowaki, A. Adhiutama, G. Yudoko, Materials selection in Appropriate Technology: Four focuses in design thinking, Adv. Mat. Res. 789 (2013) 379-382.

DOI: 10.4028/

Fetching data from Crossref.
This may take some time to load.