LiFePO4 - Activated Carbon Composite Electrode as Symmetrical Electrochemical Capacitor in Mild Aqueous Electrolyte


Article Preview

In this study, a symmetric electrochemical capacitor has been fabricated by adopting the lithiated compound (LiFePO4)-activated carbon (AC) composite as the core electrode materials. The electrochemical performances of the prepared supercapacitor were studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV) in 1.0 M Na2SO3 solution. Experimental results reveal that the maximum specific capacitance of 112.41 F/g is obtained in 40 wt % LiFePO4 loading on AC electrode in comparison to that of pure AC electrode (76.24 F/g) in 1 M Na2SO3. The enhanced capacitive performance of the 40 wt % LiFeO4 –AC composite electrode is believed attributed to the contribution of synergistic effect of electric double layer capacitance (EDLC) on the surface of AC as well as pseudocapacitance via intercalation/extraction of Na+, SO32-and Li+ ions in LiFePO4 lattices. The composite electrodes can sustain a stable capacitive performance at least 1000 cycles with only ~5 % specific capacitance loss after 1000 cycles. Based on the findings above, 40 wt % LiFeO4 –AC composite electrodes which utilise low cost materials and environmental friendly electrolyte is worth being investigated in more details.



Edited by:

Bale V. Reddy, Shishir Kumar Sahu, A. Kandasamy and Manuel de La Sen




M.Y. Ho et al., "LiFePO4 - Activated Carbon Composite Electrode as Symmetrical Electrochemical Capacitor in Mild Aqueous Electrolyte", Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vol. 627, pp. 3-6, 2014

Online since:

September 2014




* - Corresponding Author

[1] V. Aravindan, W. Chuiling, and S. Madhavi, High power lithium-ion hybrid electrochemical capacitors using spinel LiCrTiO4 as insertion electrode, J. Mater. Chem. 22 (2012) 16026.


[2] K. Naoi, S. Ishimoto, Y. Isobe, and S. Aoyagi, High-rate nano-crystalline Li4Ti5O12 attached on carbon nano-fibers for hybrid supercapacitors, J. Power Sources 195 (2010) 6250–6254.

[3] D. Cericola, P. Novák, A. Wokaun, and R. Kötz, Hybridization of electrochemical capacitors and rechargeable batteries: An experimental analysis of the different possible approaches utilizing activated carbon, Li4Ti5O12 and LiMn2O4, J. Power Sources 196 (2011).


[4] A. Du Pasquier, I. Plitz, J. Gural, S. Menocal, and G. Amatucci, Characteristics and performance of 500 F asymmetric hybrid advanced supercapacitor prototypes, J. Power Sources 113 (2003) 62–71.


[5] X.L. Wu, L.Y. Jiang, F.F. Cao, Y.G. Guo, and L.J. Wan, LiFePO4 Nanoparticles Embedded in a Nanoporous Carbon Matrix: Superior Cathode Material for Electrochemical Energy-Storage Devices, Adv. Mater. 21 (2009) 2710–2714.


[6] N. Böckenfeld, R. -S. Kühnel, S. Passerini, M. Winter, and a. Balducci, Composite LiFePO4/AC high rate performance electrodes for Li-ion capacitors, J. Power Sources 196 (2011) 4136–4142.

[7] N. Kalaiselvi, C. -H. Doh, C. -W. Park, S. -I. Moon, and M. -S. Yun, A novel approach to exploit LiFePO4 compound as an ambient temperature high capacity anode material for rechargeable lithium batteries, Electrochem. commun. 6 (2004) 1110–1113.

[8] S. R. Sivakkumar, J. Y. Nerkar, and a. G. Pandolfo, Rate capability of graphite materials as negative electrodes in lithium-ion capacitors, Electrochim. Acta 55 (2010) 3330–3335.


[9] K. Karthikeyan, V. Aravindan, S. B. Lee, I. C. Jang, H. H. Lim, G. J. Park, M. Yoshio, and Y. S. Lee, Electrochemical performance of carbon-coated lithium manganese silicate for asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors, J. Power Sources, 195 (2010).


[10] J. Santos-Peña, O. Crosnier, and T. Brousse, Nanosized α-LiFeO2 as electrochemical supercapacitor electrode in neutral sulfate electrolytes, Electrochim. Acta 55 (2010) 7511–7515, Oct.

[11] M. Takahashi, S. Tobishima, K. Takei, and Y. Sakurai, Characterization of LiFePO4 as the cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries, J. Power Sources 98 (2001) 508–511.

[12] Y.H. Kim and S.J. Park, Roles of nanosized Fe3O4 on supercapacitive properties of carbon nanotubes, Curr. Appl. Phys. 11 (2011) 462–466.