Effect of Short Time Sintering on the Mechanical Properties of Undoped Zirconia Ceramics


Article Preview

Sintering parameters are undoubtedly among the many factors that influence the mechanical properties and hydrothermal ageing resistance of tetragonal zirconia ceramics. In this research, the effect of using short holding times i.e. (1 min., 30 min. and 1 hour) as compared to the conventional 2 hours during sintering of 3 mol% Yttria Tetragonal Zirconia Polycrystals (3Y-TZP) on the mechanical properties were systematically investigated. The research revealed that holding time of 1 minute and sintered at 1400oC yielded a high relative density (above 95% of theoretical density) and high Young’s modulus (above 180 GPa) without compromising on tetragonal phase stability and mechanical properties. The study also revealed that the bulk density is an important parameter governing the matrix stiffness of 3Y-TZPs and that grain size strongly influences the transformability and consequently, the toughness of 3Y-TZPs. The toughness of the ceramic was observed to increase steeply when grains exceeded 0.52 µm, which has been identified as the critical grain size for toughening.



Edited by:

R. Varatharajoo, F.I. Romli, K.A. Ahmad, D.L. Majid and F. Mustapha




S. Sivakumar et al., "Effect of Short Time Sintering on the Mechanical Properties of Undoped Zirconia Ceramics", Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vol. 629, pp. 420-425, 2014

Online since:

October 2014




* - Corresponding Author

[1] Daniel Soares de A., Carlos A.A.C., Cosme R.M.S., Thermal Barrier Coating Electron Beam Deposition Physical Vapour Deposition of Zirconia codoped with Yttria and Niobia, J. of Aer. Tech. * Mgmt., 2, (2010) 195-202.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5028/jatm.2010.02026910

[2] Garvie R.C., Hannick R.H.J. & Pascoe R.T. , Ceramic Steel? Nature, 258, (1975) 5537.

[3] Tsukuma K., Kubota Y. &Tsukidate T., Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Y2O3-Stabilized Tetragonal Zirconia Polycrystals, In Advances in Ceramics, Vol. 12, Claussen N., Ruhle M. & Heuer A.H. (eds. ) (The Am. Ceram, Soc., Columbus, Ohio, 1984) pp.382-390.

[4] Masaki T., Mechanical Properties of Y-PSZ after Ageing at Low Temperature. Int. High Tech. Ceram., 2, (1986) 85-98.

[5] Ramesh S. & Gill C. (2001). Environmental Degradation of CuO-doped Y-TZP Ceramics. Ceram. Inter., 27, 705-711.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0272-8842(01)00024-4

[6] Basu B., Toughness Tailoring of Yttria – Stabalized tetragonal Zirconia Ceramics. Int. Mater. Rev., 50, (2005b) 239-256.

[7] Bowen P. & Carry C. , From Powdered to Sintered Pieces: Forming, Transformations and Sintering of Nanostructured Ceramic Oxides. Pow. Tech., 128, (2002) 248 – 255.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0032-5910(02)00183-3

[8] Wang H., Aboushelib M.N. &Feilzer A.J. Strength Influencing Variables on CAD / CAM Zirconia Frameworks. Dent. Mater., 24, (2008) 633-638.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2007.06.030

[9] Dobson P., Unleashing The Potential of Nanotechnology, In Materials World (The Institute of Materials, UK., April 2004) pp.25-28.

[10] Mazaheri M., Simchi A. &Fard F.G., Densification and Grain Growth of nanocrystalline 3Y-TZP During Two Step Sintering. J. Euro. Ceram., Soc., 28, (2008) 2933-2939.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2008.04.030

[11] Chen I. & Wang X., Sintering Dense Nanocrystalline Ceramics Without Final Stage Grain Growth. Nature, 404, (2000) 168-171.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/35004548

[12] Bravo L.A., Morikawa Y., Kawahara M. & Mayo M.J., Fracture Toughness of NAnocrystalline Tetragonal Zirconia with Low Yttria Content. Acta Mater. 50, (2002) 4555 – 4562.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s1359-6454(02)00283-5

[13] Kanellopoulos P. & Gill C. , Hydrothermal Ageing of Yttria-Stabilised Zirconia, Sintered at 1300oC-1325oC: The Effect of Copper Oxide Doping and Sintering Time Variations. J. Mater. Sci., 37, (2002) 5075-5082.

[14] Bernard –G.G. &GuizardC., Spark Plasma Sintering of a Commercially Available Granulated Zirconia Powder –II. Microstructure After Sintering and Ionic Conductivity. Acta Mater., 55, (2008) 3493.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2007.01.048

[15] Li W. &Gao L., Rapid Sintering of NanocrystallineZrO2(3Y) by Spark Plasma Sintering, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 20, (2000) 2441-2445.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0955-2219(00)00152-7

[16] Kim H.T., Han Y.H., Mechanical Behaviour of Zirconia / Alumina Composites. Ceram Inter., 30, 1107-1113 (2004).

[17] Hjerppe J., Vallitu P.K., Froberg K. &LassilaL.V.J. Effect of Sintering Time on Biaxial Strength of Zirconium Dioxide. Dent. Mater., 25, (2009) 166-171.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2008.05.011

[18] Hodgson S.N.B., Cawley J. &Clubley M., The Role of Al2O3 Impurities on the Microstructure and Properties of Y-TZP. J. Mater. Process. Tech., 92-93, (1999a) 85-90.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0924-0136(99)00164-8

[19] Lange F.F., Dunlop G.L. & Davis B.I., Degradation During Ageing of Transformation Toughened ZrO2-Y2O3 Materials at 250oC. J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 69, (1986) 237-240.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1151-2916.1986.tb07415.x

[20] Introduction to Zirconia, Magnesium electron Ltd., UK No. (113, 1986).