AEROTECH V: Progressive Aerospace Research

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Authors: Javaan Chahl, Aakash Dawadee
Abstract: Navigation by means that are fully self contained, without the weight and cost of high performance inertial navigation units is highly desirable in many applications both military and civilian. In this paper we introduce a suite of sensors and behaviors that include: the means to reduce lateral drift due to wind using optical flow, detection of a constellation of landmarks using a machine vision system, and a polarization compass that is reliable at extreme latitudes based on polarization. In a series of flight trials and detailed simulations we have demonstrated that a combination of these functions achieves purely optical navigation with simplicity and robustness.
Authors: Alessandro Gardi, Roberto Sabatini, Subramanian Ramasamy, Trevor Kistan
Abstract: This paper presents models and algorithms for real-time 4-Dimensional Flight Trajectory (4DT) operations in the next generation Communications, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) systems. In particular, the models are employed for multi-objective optimisation of 4DT intents in ground-based 4DT Planning, Negotiation and Validation (4-PNV) systems and in airborne Next Generation Flight Management Systems (NG-FMS). The assumed timeframe convention for offline and online air traffic operations is introduced and discussed. The adopted formulation of the multi-objective 4DT optimisation problem includes a number of environmental objectives and operational constraints. In particular, the paper describes a real-time multi-objective optimisation algorithm and the generalised expression of cost function adopted for penalties associated with specific airspace volumes, accounting for weather models, condensation trails models and noise models.
Authors: Shamsul Bahri Faat, Amzari Zhahir, Mohamed Tarmizi Ahmad, M.R. Ajir
Abstract: An Intelligent-Data Management System (IDMS) for store separation analysis has been developed for Stores Separation Simulation program. The characteristics of the IDMS generically focuses on gathering, collecting, analysing, reporting, summarising and visualising validated data prior separation activity in simulated environment. The components of IDMS are Aircraft Configuration, Interface Configuration, Stores Geometry, Pylon Configuration and Cube (a multi-dimensional visibility of Form, Fit and Function stores-platform Data Verifier). Overall, this project combined information from separation patterns analysis by integrating multi-dimensional databases, systematic-data orchestration; rules based data mining for stores separation verifier into one data management system. This paper presents the program review of overall store separation simulation program.
Authors: Siti Nur Mariani Mohd Yunos, Mohammad Fahmi Abdul Ghafir, A.A. Wahab
Abstract: Environmental concerns due to aviation emissions and noise have resulted in introduction of emission and noise charges imposed by airports to airline operators. In order to assess the impact of emission and noise towards the airline's operating costs, this paper presents the initial work in developing an economic model and explains the validation and application of the direct operating cost (DOC) estimation used by the model. A comparison with another two DOC estimation methods has also been performed. The results indicate that the estimated cost is in a good agreement with the data from the public domain despite the differences with data from other estimation methods due to the variation of approach adopted by each model. Finally, an inclusion of environmental charges in DOC is also presented, which shows the amount is relatively small. Nonetheless, in order to ensure a sustainable airline operations, further actions in reducing aviation emission and noise are essential.
Authors: Subramanian Ramasamy, Roberto Sabatini, Alessandro Gardi, Trevor Kistan
Abstract: This paper presents the concept of operations, architecture and trajectory optimisation algorithms of a Next Generation Flight Management System (NG-FMS). The NG-FMS is developed for Four Dimensional (4D) Intent Based Operations (IBO) in the next generation Communications, Navigation, Surveillance and Air Traffic Management system (CNS+A) context. The NG-FMS, primarily responsible for the aircraft navigation and guidance task, acts as a key enabler for achieving higher level of operational efficiency and mitigating environmental impacts both in manned and unmanned aircraft applications. The NG-FMS is interoperable with the future ground based 4DT Planning, Negotiation and Validation (4-PNV) systems, enabling automated Trajectory/Intent Based Operations (TBO/IBO). After the NG-FMS architecture is presented, the key mathematical models describing the trajectory generation and optimisation modes are introduced. A detailed error analysis is performed and the uncertainties affecting the nominal trajectories are studied to obtain the total NG-FMS error budgets. These are compared with the Required Navigation Performance (RNP) values for the various operational flight tasks considered.
Authors: Mohamed Tarmizi Ahmad, Michael Lam, A.S. Mohd Harithuddin, Amzari Zhahir, Omar Kassim Ariff

Traditionally, Kalman Filter is used for the purpose of mixing several input signals and extracting a more reliable output, which greatly benefits aircraft navigation. This paper considers a fusion of four sensor systems: Global Positioning System (GPS), accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer. The resultant device, known as Starfish Main Tracking Unit (MTU), is a Flight Data Monitoring (FDM) / Tracking System equipment that uses General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) / Iridium / ICS (Internet Communications Services), which provides low cost telemetry as well as multiple solutions for global flight following and flight data transfer between aircraft and ground. Users from ground are able to monitor their fleet, configure their systems and also generate various flight reports from a single web-based interface, named the Starfish Fleet Management system. This developed system complements the Black Box by downloading limited aircraft data to the ground, provides real time tracking and assist in Search and Rescue (SAR) mission.

Authors: Roberto Sabatini, Alessandro Gardi, Subramanian Ramasamy

This paper presents an overview of the research activities performed to develop a new scaled variant of the Laser Obstacle Avoidance and Monitoring (LOAM) system for small-to-medium size Unmanned Aircraft (UA) platforms. This LOAM variant (LOAM+) is proposed as one of the non-cooperative sensors employed in the UA Sense-and-Avoid (SAA) system. After a brief description of the LOAM system architecture, the mathematical models developed for obstacle avoidance and calculation of alternative flight path are presented. Additionally, a new formulation is adopted for defining the uncertainty volumes associated with the detected obstacles. Simulation case studies are carried out to evaluate the performances of the avoidance trajectory generation and optimisation algorithms, which demonstrate the ability of LOAM+ to effectively detect and avoid fixed low-level obstacles in the intended path.

Authors: Tamer Z. Fouad Mohamed
Abstract: The paper aims to structure the knowledge management system (KMS) in aerospace alliances based on open innovation to foster industry diffusion and growth. Literature review discussed core questions, challenges and opportunities of Research and Development (R&D) collaboration in the aerospace industry where open innovation and crowdsourcing can be an effective and efficient solution. The paper eventually adopted Industrial Service Blueprinting (ISB) framework and proposed open innovation solutions for aerospace R&D alliances.
Authors: Alexander Nebylov, Vladimir Nebylov
Abstract: The Wing-in-Ground Effect vehicles (WIG-craft, Wingships) or Ekranoplanes as they are called in Russia are developing in several countries and the problem of perfect flight control is very important for these vehicles' successful application either for commercial or military. An accident-free flight at very low altitude above the rough underlying surface, mainly above the disturbed sea surface, and also take-off and landing require special systems of motion control that are different from those used on planes. The requirements for such motion control systems and the new criteria for their improvement are offered. The aim of this investigation is to define the way for operational performance improvement of the vehicles of advanced design. The experience and achievements in this field of high technology are described.
Authors: Surjatin Wiriadidjaja, Azmin Shakrine Mohd Rafie, Faizal Mustapha, Fadilah Hasim, Tabrej Khan, Harijono Djojodihardjo
Abstract: The existing UPM low speed wind tunnel was usually occupied by students, who carried out their final year projects or postgraduate researches, so that there was hardly free time slot for any additional testing work. Due to this reason, a new wind tunnel project has been started recently. Some basic specifications of the new tunnel have been pre-selected before the project was started, which comprised the following design decisions: a tunnel speed of 50 m/s, a test section area of 1´1 m2, and a closed circuit tunnel type. It wouldn’t be difficult to perceive that this pre-selection was made based on some of the trade-off results among the project’s options and constraints. This paper is aimed to present a simple analysis on the design of the new tunnel, focusing only on its basic geometries. Some design decisions that have been made related to its basic geometries are analyzed and reported in this paper. This analysis may be considered as a design verification of the new tunnel or even perhaps be regarded as scientific justification for its existence.

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