Abstract: All heat transfer processes from a solid body to a gas or a liquid are connected with flow characteristics in the vicinity of the streamlined body surface. As far as plenty of flow properties are changing rapidly, it is important to know both heat transfer and flow properties in a certain location and at a certain time. We present a new method of the simultaneous velocity field measurement and heatmetry. By “heatmetry” we mean science and practice of the heat flux measurement (by analogy with the thermometry). The velocity field was obtained by the particle image velocimetry and the local heat flux – by the gradient heat flux sensor. The advantage of the method was exemplified on the heat transfer from a circular cylinder in cross flow.
Abstract: This study concerns with aerodynamic drag on a passenger car. By using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method, we found that values of skin friction coefficients for three different parts of the car: front, top and rear parts, are different. This study addresses three different basic possible flows around a car: favourable, zero and adverse pressure gradients. Generally, cars use approximately 20% of their engine power to overcome aerodynamic drag, which is generally proportional to the frontal area. The boundary layer at each position has been analyzed to ascertain the effect of wall shear stress on the car surface. It is found that the value of wall shear stress velocity is highest at the rear part, followed by front and top parts. Subsequently, it is shown that the front part has the thinnest viscous region despite not being the part with the highest local ambient velocity compared with the top and rear parts. Despite its supposed aerodynamic shape, the rear part of the car sees separation of flow and the total drag per unit area here is the largest, twice as large as front part and more than seven times larger than the top part.
Abstract: Materials are subjected to low temperatures either intentionally as in the case of cryogenic fuels or non-intentionally as in the case of aerospace environment and are observed to undergo changes in their properties. Microstructural changes are the premier indications of changes in the properties of materials. This paper investigates the effect of cryogenic temperature on the microstructure of low alloy steel weldments. The weldments were subjected to liquid nitrogen temperature of 77K and the microstructures were analyzed using optical microscope and transmission electron Microscope. A distinct change in the microstructure was observed which would reason out the changes in the mechanical properties of weldments.
Abstract: In this study, the impact responses for GFRP type C-600 and GFRP type E-800 have been investigated. Impact tests were performed using a drop weight tester, IMATEK IM10T with eight different levels of energy ranging from 6 J to 48 J. The variation of impact characteristics such as peak displacement, peak force and energy absorbed versus impact energy and damaged area were investigated. From the experimental studies, it can be concluded that for each type of GFRP, the impact energy showed excellent correlation with the impact characterization and the damaged area. The difference in the thickness and mechanical properties for both types of GFRP do affect the impact characterization and the damaged area of the specimens tested. It can be concluded that GFRP type E-800 is higher in strength compared to GFRP type C-600.
Abstract: This paper presents the experimental three-year learning activity developed by a group of teachers in a wind tunnel facility. The authors, leading a team of students, carried out a project consisting of the design, assembly and testing of a wind tunnel. The project included all stages of the process from its initial specifications to its final quality flow assessments, going through the calculation of each element, and the building of the whole wind tunnel. The group of (final year) students was responsible for the whole wind tunnel project as a part of their bachelor degree project. The paper focuses on the development of wind tunnel data acquisition software. This automatic tool is essential to improve the automation of the data acquisition of the wind tunnel facility systems, in particular for a 6 DOF multi-axis force/torque sensor. This work can be considered as a typical example of real engineering practice: a set of specifications that has to be modified due to the constraints imposed throughout the project, in order to obtain the final result.
Abstract: Solar energy is the largest available renewable energy for enhancing the endurance of a solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). However, harnessing solar energy is a great challenge because the power output efficiency of solar module systems is only 15% to 30%. A solar-powered UAV has the potential to outperform a battery-powered UAV, particularly in tasks involving a pseudo satellite that requires long operating hours. Atmospheric conditions and geographical location are the main causes of the poor performance of solar modules. Despite the improvements in solar cell efficiency over the years, solar module systems can still barely convert half of the sun’s power into electricity. This limitation hinders the use of current solar module systems for harvesting solar energy. Recent studies have focused not only on the type of solar cells but also on the positioning system. However, understanding and research on the solar irradiance intensity, as well as on the effect of daylight duration on the power output, remain lacking. A comprehensive model was developed to address this gap and investigate how the movement of the sun movement affects the performance of solar module systems. This simulation model found that daylight duration is more important than available solar irradiance. Higher solar irradiance and daylight duration corresponds to a higher power output of the solar module system. Daylight duration also depends on latitude where higher latitudes lead to longer daylight duration. On the other hand, longitudinal coordinates and elevation have minor effects on the estimation of daylight duration. Therefore, the northern hemisphere has more advantages than southern hemisphere during summer and vice versa.
Abstract: Various non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDTE) techniques are in use by the aviation industry. Thermal imaging as an NDTE tool for composite material is becoming an effective methodology. In this research, a direct energy method approach to active thermal imaging is applied with test specimen placed between the heating source and the camera to take only one diagnostics snap per unit area of region of interest (ROI). Purpose of this study is to assess the utility of direct method as a reliable NDTE technique during aerospace inspections as a quick ‘Go / No Go’ tool for the detection of sub-surface delamination in multilayered composite sheets. The research presents a quantitative comparison of temperature profiles as well as qualitative analysis of 2D active infrared thermo graphic testing of glass fiber epoxy to detect sub-surface delamination. The experimental results are in close agreement with the actual locations of delamination in test samples. The technique may serve as a reliable tool to quickly categorize the component under inspection. However, the size of delamination could not be ascertained with acceptable accuracy in this study, possibly due to the spread of epoxy to the delaminated regions during preparation of defective samples.
Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate how the high-speed milling of Inconel 718 using ball nose end mill could enhance the productivity and quality of the finish parts. The experimental work was carried out through Response Surface Methodology via Box-Behnken design. The effect of prominent milling parameters, namely cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut (DOC), and width of cut (WOC) were studied to evaluate their effects on tool life, surface roughness and cutting force. In this study, the cutting speed, feed rate, DOC, and WOC were in the range of 100 - 140 m/min, 0.1 - 0.2 mm/tooth, 0.5 - 1.0 mm and 0.2 - 1.8 mm, respectively. In order to reduce the effect of heat generated during the high speed milling operation, minimum quantity lubrication of 50 ml/hr was used. The effect of input factors on the responds was identified by mean of ANOVA. The response of tool life, surface roughness and cutting force together with calculated material removal rate were then simultaneously optimized and further described by perturbation graph. Interaction between WOC with other factors was found to be the most dominating factor of all responds. The optimum cutting parameter which obtained the longest tool life of 60 mins, minimum surface roughness of 0.262 μm and resultant force of 221 N was at cutting speed of 100 m/min, feed rate of 0.15 mm/tooth, DOC 0.5 m and WOC 0.66 mm.
Abstract: Visualization of wavefield propagation has been evolving as one of the most significant nondestructive imaging methods for structural damage evaluation and shock analysis. Corresponding visualization systems that are commonly used are potentially affected by aliasing due to the nature of discrete sampling in spatial and temporal domains. This study was conducted to define the problem and produce a spatial sampling guideline for aliasing-free visualization. Experimental demonstration was given at various spatial sampling rates for comparison. The results verified that the guideline is valid and can be used for quick determination of aliasing-free spatial sampling rate prior to experiment. Special guideline for post-sampling optimization was also presented.
Abstract: This paper explains the utilisation of finite element model to analyse the ballistic limit of aluminium alloy 7075-T6 impacted by 8.33 g with 12.5 mm radius rigid spherical projectiles. This numerical study was compared with the results obtained experimentally. During impact, the targets were subjected to either non- or uniaxial- pretension and the projectile travelled horizontally to the target. It was observed that pretensioned targets were more vulnerable, which reduced the ballistic limit. The existence of harmful failures owing to pretension impact was ascertained and compared with the non-pretension targets.