Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are generally known as excessive phytoplankton growth or rapidly concentrate to high biomass. This study summarized the situation of HABs in China, and discussed possible dominant factors stimulating algal blooms by analyzing several actual HABs cases. It was manifested nutrients may affect algae concentration principally, but such impact tended to decease with degradation of background water. Meanwhile the hydrological and meteorological factors expressed greater correlation to chlorophyll concentration under multiple coupling effects of complex environmental factors. For the complex mechanisms, the determination of principle factors which stimulate excessive algal blooms effectively still need further researches, which are suggested to conduct under overall considerations on 3 scales: macro dimension, medium dimension and micro dimension.