Formation and Effect of Moisture Contents to Kraft Paper’s Life of In-Service Power Distribution Transformer


Article Preview

Examples of solid and liquid electrical insulations for power transformer are mineral oil and cellulose based paper. As transformers performed their function to step-up or step-down voltage level, its’ insulations will be degraded. Paper insulation is considered the most critical component in a transformer insulation system because it is not easily replaced if compared to oil where it is easily reconditioned in-order to remove water and contaminants. Studies show that temperature, moisture contents and oxygen contributed to paper insulation degradation. Moisture and furanic compound were produced from these deterioration processes. This paper is focused on the formation and effect of moisture to Kraft paper’s life. Levels of moisture contents were obtained from in-service power distribution transformers. These data then is used to assess the Kraft paper’s life by means of Weibull plot. This study shows that level of moisture contents can be used to assess the life of Kraft paper insulation.



Edited by:

Gomesh Nair a/l Shasidharan, Muhammad Irwanto, Muhammad Mokhzaini Azizan and Baharuddin Ismail




I. Sutan Chairul et al., "Formation and Effect of Moisture Contents to Kraft Paper’s Life of In-Service Power Distribution Transformer", Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vol. 793, pp. 114-118, 2015

Online since:

September 2015




* - Corresponding Author

[1] Chairul, I.S., Ghani, S.A., Khiar, M.S.A., Thayoob, Y.H.M., Ghazali, Y.Z.Y. in: Kraft paper insulation's life assessment and effects of oxygen and moisture to paper insulation's deterioration rate, IEEE International Conference on Power and Energy (PECon), 2012, pp.728-731.

DOI: 10.1109/pecon.2012.6450311

[2] Mohd Shahril Ahmad Khiar et al in: Diagnosis of OLTC via duval triangle method and dynamic current measurement, Procedia Engineering 68 (2013) 477-483.

DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2013.12.209

[3] Khiar, M.S.A., Thayoob, Y.H.M., Ghazali, Y.Z.Y., Ab Ghani, S.; Chairul, I.S. in: Condition assessment of OLTC using duval triangle and static winding resistance test, IEEE International Conference on Power Engineering and Optimization (PEOCO) Melaka, Malaysia, 2012, pp.432-435.

DOI: 10.1109/peoco.2012.6230903

[4] Sharin Ab Ghani et al in: Condition monitoring of distribution transformer's mechanical parts using sweep frequency response analysis (SFRA), Procedia Engineering 68 (2013) 469-476.

DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2013.12.208

[5] Ab Ghani, S., Md Thayoob, Y.H., Ghazali, Y.Z.Y., Khiar, M.S.A., Chairul, I.S. in: Evaluation of transformer core and winding conditions from SFRA measurement results using statistical techniques for distribution transformers, IEEE International Conference on Power Engineering and Optimization (PEOCO) Melaka, Malaysia, 2012, pp.448-453.

DOI: 10.1109/peoco.2012.6230906

[6] J. Unsworth, F. Mitchell in: Degradation of electrical insulating paper monitored using high performance liquid chromatography, IEEE Proc. 1988, p.337–340.

DOI: 10.1109/icpadm.1988.38403

[7] M.P. Singh in: Material Used in Transformers, Transformers, Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited, Bhopal, 1987, pp.31-42.

[8] D.H. Shroff and A.W. Stannett in: A Review of Paper Aging in Power Transformers, IEE Proc., Vol 132 Part C, 1985, pp.312-319.

DOI: 10.1049/ip-c.1985.0052

[9] Information on http: /www. transformerscommittee. org/subcommittees/fluids.

[10] C57. 106-2006 IEEE Guide for Acceptance and Maintenance of Insulating Oil in Equipment.

[11] Reliasoft Corporation in: Reliability and Life Data Analysis, 2009, Reliasoft Publishing pp.15-83.

Fetching data from Crossref.
This may take some time to load.