Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) – Sustainable and Green Energy: A Review
In this paper a review on recent development in Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) is presented along with scope and challenges. As the name suggests Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) is a phenomenon of nuclear reaction occurring in metal hydrides at ambient temperature. The products are generally Helium & significant amount of useful heat energy. During the process Transmutation of metal (host) occurs; occasionally producing some charged particles and neutrons. The LENR are successfully carried out with various elements namely; nickel, gold, palladium, platinum, titanium, certain superconducting ceramics, etc. LENR poses itself as a source of pollution free and inexhaustible energy source. It produces tremendous amount of heat energy during the reaction which surpasses all the available energy sources by a factor of hundredths to millions. Besides this it is also useful in transmutation of nuclear wastes. To initiate LENR there are various views floating around in scientific community. The purpose is to bring together two nuclei at low energy to fuse together as a single nucleus. A large amount of force is required which is generally obtained through plasma arc or accelerated high energy ions. But in case of LENR all the nuclear reaction occur at low energy thus saving excessive amount of energy required for activation. One of the most studied LENR involves palladium. The palladium is used at a loading between 0.9 and 0.94 to produce optimum results. It is a source of Energy which is more eco-friendly and productive than all the available energy sources known to us. Statistically 1% of the total Ni production can power the World that too at one-fourth the cost of burning fossils. Models are being developed with Carbon replacing Ni, thus it will convert carbon to nitrogen. LENR is also being developed for using nuclear wastes as fuel, transmuting them into non-radioactive elements. This will tag LENR as much greener and cleaner source. LENR is being also developed to be used as an alternative and richer energy source to radioactive fuels (like Pu-238), currently being used to power space probes. Thus it helps reduce the generation of hazardous nuclear wastes.
Mazlan Abdul Wahid, Syahrullail Samion, Aminuddin Saat, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik, Normah M. Ghazali, Nazri Kamsah, Azhar A. Aziz, Farid N. Ani, Haslinda M. Kamar and Mohsin Sies
M. Z. Akhter and M. A. Hassan, "Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) – Sustainable and Green Energy: A Review", Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vol. 819, pp. 507-511, 2016