Abstract: Nanoemulsions are well characterized in a promising drug delivery system with applications for drug and cosmetic. Traditionally and cosmetic industries use Rice bran oil and Hesperethusa crenulata or Thanakha bark aqueous extract in sunscreen formulations, anti ageing products and in treatments for skin diseases. The aim of this study was to produce the nanoemulsion and to evaluate their physical stability, irritation potential. In vitro study, the total phenolic contents and total antioxidant capacity of SangYod Rice bran oil (SRBO) were 1130.44 ± 53.55 mg GAE/mg and 25.94±4.69 mmol TEAC/mg and Thanakha were 3.85±0.23 mg GAE/gdw and 19.87 ± 2.59 mmol TEAC/gdw, respectively. The nanoemulsion containing SRBO and Thanakha, oil in water, was produced using low-pressure homogenizer and ultrasonicator techniques and the particle size was 167.03±1.75 nm. The stability of nanoemulsion represented no significant change on pH and particle size after day 0, 5, 11, 14 and over 12 month at temperature 4, 25 and 40 °C. Moreover, it’s also showed no irritation on HET–CAM test, a basic test for embryotoxicity, systemic toxicity and immunopathology. Conclusion, these results suggested that the nanoemulsion containing SRBO and Thanakha may serve as potential vehicles for improved transdermal delivery antioxidant compound and no irritation.
Abstract: The objective of this work was to compare the chemical properties and mechanical properties (strength and elongation) of gelatin/chitosan (G/Ch) films. The effect of several fish scales such as white perch, java barb, red tilapia and nile tilapia scales and mixing ratios of G/Ch composite was investigated. Several fish scales were cleaned and treated with 1.0 M NaOH and 0.8 M acetic acid at room temperature for 120 min to remove fat. Gelatins were extracted from fish scales using the distilled water at 70°C for 120 min. Chitosan solution was prepared with 1% (w/v) chitosan in 1% (v/v) acetic acid, stirred at room temperature. After that, the G/Ch films were prepared by mixing the fish scale gelatins and chitosan with different ratios and then dried at 70°C. The results showed that the FT-IR of G/Ch films revealed the function groups of both gelatin and chitosan. The gelatin films showed peaks amide A (3219-3315 cm-1), alkane (2930-2958 cm1, 1400 -1479 cm-1and 675-1000 cm-1), amide I (1630-1655 cm-1), amide II (1520-1560 cm-1), amide III (1220-1335 cm-1), and ether (1020-1035 cm-1). The chitosan films showed peaks amide II (1559 cm-1), alkane (1404 cm-1) and ether (1022 cm-1). The tensile strength results of G/Ch films increased and elongation of G/Ch films decreased with increasing the amount of chitosan.
Abstract: Hydroxyapatite was synthesized using calcium originated from waste eggshell that was reacted with phosphate obtained from diammonium hydrogen orthophosphate by ball milling technique. The samples were mixed at different time from 5 to 150 min. The structure, function group and morphology of hydroxyapatite were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The result showed that the hydroxyapatite phase was appeared after ball milling about 5 min and confirmed with FTIR results. The FE-SEM of hydroxyapatite powder was spherical shape and agglomerate. The crystallinity of hydroxyapatite was increased with increasing ball milling time. This experiment showed that the nano hydroxyapatite could synthesized from waste eggshell by ball milling technique.
Abstract: The bio-composited ceramic stabilized zirconia-hydroxyapatite had been formed by ball milling method. The hydroxyapatite was synthesized from chicken eggshell via chemical precipitation. And it was mixed with stabilized zirconia powder together. All of the samples had been investigated by XRD, FTIR and UTM tester. The XRD and FTIR result showed that the stabilized zirconia-hydroxyapatite sample powder after ball mill was found only hydroxyapatite and zirconia phase without addition of other phase. High crystallinity of hydroxyapatite can be found after heat treatment and calcium zirconium oxide was formed around 1300 °C. In addition, the compressive strength increased with increasing the zirconia content shown by UTM tester.
Abstract: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) has been reported on toxicity effects on environmental organisms. However, Zn is a plant essential microelement which is involved in various physiological functions. In this study, MS medium, adding 0, 10 and 20 mgL-1 ZnO NPs were used for culturing wild type (WT) and transgenic expressing PAP1 under tissue culture condition. Effects of ZnO NPs concentrations on the accumulations of total soluble sugar (TSS) and flavonoid biomaterials in WT and transgenic plants were analysis. Membrane stability of each plant was assayed by lipid peroxidation measurement. Malondialdehyde, a byproduct of the membrane lipid peroxidation, was presented. The result showed that both WT and transgenic grown in medium, adding ZnO NPs enhanced the accumulations of TSS and flavonoids. All of PAP1 transgenic lines had a better response under ZnO NPs concentration and elevated higher biomaterials than WT did. Medium adding 20 mgL-1 ZnO NPs affected the highest accumulation of both biomaterials especially in transgenic plant. Higher accumulation of biomaterials is presented in treatment adding ZnO NPs and plant membrane stability of this treatment is better than that of medium without ZnO NPs. However, medium with 10 mgL-1 ZnO NPs showed the proper result of plant membrane stability.
Abstract: Zinc is an essential micronutrient element for plant. Nowadays, Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are widely used and have been shown adverse effects to plant physiology. The optimal concentration of ZnO NPs added in plant regeneration medium (PRM) is studied in this experiment. Six-weeks old calli induced from the aseptic axillary buds of vetiver grass were cultured in PRM with various concentrations of ZnO NPs (5, 10, 20, 40 mgL-1). PRM containing 5, 10 mgL-1 ZnO NPs showed the highest percentage of plant regeneration frequency (95%) but did not have a statistic difference with other treatments. However, the averages of shoot length regenerated under both concentrations were 1.32-1.33 cm. These averages of shoot length had statistically different from averages of shoot length of the others. Moreover, calli regenerated under PRM containing 5 mgL-1 ZnO NPs condition showed the highest average number of shoots per callus (9.75 shoots) with a statistic difference. ZnO NPs at 20-40 mgL-1 in the PRM did not enhance the percentage of plant regeneration, but retarded calli development and shoot elongation. The optimal concentration of ZnO NPs in PRM has positive effects on regeneration and development of vetiver grass under tissue culture condition.
Abstract: Flavonol synthase (FLS) gene encodes an enzyme that is involved in conversion substrates into flavonols, quercetin and kaempferol. These substances are a subgroup of flavonoids which have an important role in both plant and human health. Many environmental factors such as temperature, pH and UV-A radiation have been studied and presented relationship with flavonoid synthesis. In this experiment, the combination of visible and UV-A lights was used as factors for elevating flavonoid biosynthesis of wild type (WT) plant and two lines of FLS transgenic plant under tissue culture condition. Both transgenic lines significantly enhanced the accumulation of quercetin and kaempferol substances nearly one fold higher than WT plant did. The photosynthetic pigment levels of chlorophyll A, chlorophyll B and carotenoid in transgenic lines are in the range 45.20-46.88, 16.34-17.04 and 13.63-13.46, while those of WT plants are 35.93, 13.18 and 10.55 (µg/g FW), respectively. Therefore, FLS transgenic plants containing high flavonol content showed a better in the protection photosynthetic pigments by less reductions of chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments.
Abstract: Nowadays, shading net is widely use in Thailand, especially for vegetable production. Many colors of shading net can be found in the market. In this experiment, we set up three net houses for lettuce by using three colors of 50% transparent shading net, black, red and green. Ten of 15 days after planting (DAP) lettuces were moved to each color net house and control (direct sun). Total 40 lettuces were used for 10 days experiment. The result showed that the leave length and width of lettuce under red shading net respectively were significantly bigger than those under green shading net and control treatment without significant difference with the black shading net. The lettuce under red shading net had a highest stem diameter, fresh weight and dry weight comparing with others color shading net. The spectra of the solar radiations that transmitted through the red shading net were suitable for the photosynthesis of the lettuce leaves that could promote lettuce growth and yield.
Abstract: A 2D-Matlab model was developed to predict the UV absorbance spectra and thus concentration of oligodeoxynucleotide samples. This model will be valuable for researchers designing experiments involving oligodeoxynucleotides. Initial data was acquired from UV absorbance spectra of oligodeoxynucleotides 23, 24 and 34 bases long. The model, which would predict the concentration of DNA from the R260 value, is shown to predict absorbance spectra and the extinction coefficient of DNA as shown when compared across a range of concentrations.