Abstract: In this investigation, A357 (Al-7.5%Si-0.5%Mg) alloy/Al2O3 composites with various weight fractions (4%, 8%, 10%) were prepared by using permanent mould casting. In addition, A357 alloys were cast for comparison purposes. Microstructure, hardness and tensile properties of these composites were evaluated and compared with as-cast alloy. In addition, tribological properties of these composites were evaluated using a Pin-on-Disc apparatus at a constant sliding velocity of 1m/s and pressure of 0.35 MPa. The microstructure of the composites shows homogenous distribution of Al2O3 plate-like particles in the Al matrix except in the A357/10%Al2O3 composite. The wear and mechanical properties of composites improve with increasing the weight percentage of Al2O3 upto 8% and then decreases. Particularly, mechanical properties of the A357/10%Al2O3 composite are lower than the alloy indicating that the critical weight fraction of Al2O3 reinforcement in the A357 alloy is 8%. Wear morphology studies show that higher wear rate in case of unreinforced specimen was associated with higher thickness of hardened layer and consequent delamination of wear debris from the surface which was confirmed by optical and scanning electron micrography.Whereas ductile and brittle mode of fracture is observed in Fractographic observation of composite. The present paper highlights the salient features of casting technique and characterization of aluminum alloy A357 and alumina metal matrix composite.
Abstract: The aim is to study the mechanical property and dry sliding wear behaviour of Al7068/graphite composite with various weight fractions (5%, 10%, 15%) were prepared by liquid metallurgy route was investigated. The average particle size of graphite is 40 μm. In addition, Al7068 alloys were cast for comparison purposes. The alloys and composites were given a T6 heat treatment process (solution treatment at 540 oC, water quenching at room temperature and artificial ageing at 170 oC) .Microstructure, hardness and tensile properties of these composites were evaluated and compared with as-cast alloy and the composites without T6 heat treatment. In addition, tribological properties of these composites were evaluated using a Pin-on-Disc apparatus with different parameters (constant velocity of 2m/s and varying loads as follows 10N, 15N, 20N, 25N, 30N) .The microstructure of the composites shows homogenous distribution of graphite particles in the Al matrix except in the Al7068/15% graphite composite. The wear and mechanical properties of composites improve with increasing the weight fraction of graphite upto 10% and then decreases gradually. This study provides an alternative way to enhance the tribological behaviour of Al7068/graphite composite. The study also highlights the different contribution of different input process parameters (like: composition of Al-graphite, molding technique and particle size of reinforcement material) on wear properties of Al-graphite MMCs.
Abstract: In this article, an attempt was made to study the mechanical behaviour of AA7068 - 6 vol. % of MoS2 - X vol. % of WC (X = 0, 5, 10 and 15) hybrid aluminium composites produced by blend–press–sinter methodology. Compacted Powders (700MPa) were sintered at different temperatures (450 0c, 500 0c and 550 0c ) in order to find the influence of sintering temperature on mechanical properties and tribological behavior of AA7068 hybrid composites.The sintered samples have been characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) method for identification of phases and also to investigate the phase changes. The change in density, hardness and porosity values of composites were reported. The composite with 15 vol. % of tungsten carbide and 6 vol. % of MoS2 showed the highest hardness and density at the sintering temperature range of 550 0c. Pin-on-disc type apparatus was used for determining the wear loss occurring at different conditions. The hybridization of the two reinforcements enhanced the wear resistance of the composites, especially under high applied load, sliding distance and sliding speeds. Due to this, the hybrid aluminium composites can be considered as an outstanding material where high strength and wear-resistant components are of major importance, predominantly in the aerospace and automotive engineering sectors. The morphology of the wear debris and the worn out surfaces were analyzed to understand the wear mechanisms.
Abstract: Natural fiber composites are presently replacing the synthetic fiber in many fields. The present research work study is an attempt to manufacture and test the sisal/banana fiber reinforced polymer composites. Composite have been manufactured using banana and sisal fiber along with epoxy resin as reinforcement. With these composites drilling has been carried out to study the factors and combination of factors that influence the delamination of drilled unidirectional sisal-banana fiber reinforced composites. Drilling experiments were performed based on the L9-Taguchi method. Delamination factor evaluated for the selected parameters spindle speed, feed and diameter of the drill tool with the help of signal to noise ratio, ANOVA analysis and to obtain the conditions for minimum delamination.
Abstract: Production of A6063/SiC composite with various weight fractions (3%, 6%, 9%) were prepared by using permanent mould casting was investigated. The preferred mean particle size of SiC is 60 μm. In addition, A6063 alloys were cast for comparison purposes. The alloys and composites were given a T6 heat treatment process (solution treatment at 520 °C, water quenching at room temperature and artificial ageing at 180 °C), Also Microstructure, hardness and tensile properties of these composites were evaluated and compared. In addition, tribological properties of these composites were evaluated using a Pin-on-Disc apparatus with various parameters (constant load of 10N and varying velocities as follows 0.5m/s, 1m/s, 1.5m/s, 2m/s) .The microstructure of the composites shows homogenous distribution of SiC particles in the Al matrix except in the A6063/9% SiC composite. The wear and mechanical properties of composites improve with increasing the weight fraction of SiC Wear morphology studies show that higher wear rate in case of unreinforced specimen compared to heat treated composites. Whereas with the increase in SiC content, the material tends to fail in brittle mode. The aim of present study is to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the mechanical and tribological properties of aluminum alloy A6063 /SiC metal matrix composite.
Abstract: Natural fibers have been used to reinforce materials in many composite structures. Many types of natural fibers have been investigated including flax, hemp, ramie, sisal, abaca, banana etc., due to the advantage that they are light weight, renewable resources and have marketing appeal. These agricultural wastes can also be used to prepare fiber reinforced polymer hybrid composites in various combinations for commercial use. Application of composite materials in structural applications has presented the need for the engineering analysis. The present work focuses on the fabrication of polymer matrix composites by using natural fibers like banana and cotton which are abundant in nature and analysing the effect of mechanical properties of the composites on different surface treatments on the fabric. The effect of various surface treatments (NaOH, SLS, KMnO4) on the mechanical properties namely tensile, flexural and impact was analyzed and are discussed in this project. Analysing the material characteristics of the compression moulded composites; their results were measured on sections of the material to make use of the natural fiber reinforced polymer composite material for automotive seat shell manufacturing.
Abstract: Polymer matrix composites are widely applied for the manufacturing of components employed in hostile environments to increase the service life and sometimes at a later stage for the reclamation of worn out parts. Every decade, numerous materials and techniques are being introduced and developed for the effective protection of low cost bulk materials out of which the fabrication of components could be done. Among such techniques hand layup, matched die mould methods, contact mould methods, filament winding and pultrusion methods has being employed increasingly in the process industries which has several significant advantages over other processes. It has become a process of its reliability, better process control, ease of use, good surface finish and closeness of dimensions. One among the method matched die mould method was selected as the process of preparation of the composite plate in the presented work. However, there are some inherent problems with control of resin flow, application of high temperature for curing during fabrication process. To address those main problems, a systematic investigation was carried out. The selected material is natural plant fibre available in abundant called “Crotalaria juncea” and is being employed as a green manuring plant in agriculture. In the investigation, the fibre is taken in two different forms of random and woven orientations and plate fabrication is done with unsaturated polyester resin as the matrix. The investigation is on woven orientation of biaxial, biaxially stitched and unidirectional woven types were done using the fibre to the size of the plate to be fabricated. Woven fibres of these three types were done at fibre design centre, Kerala. It was found that the fabrication could be done by placing two layer and three layer of the woven mat alone. So for the three woven types, two layer and three layer plates were fabricated to give about six plates in total. Here again to arrive at a closeness value for each combination, three plates were fabricated and the average value is got by testing. Tensile, flexural, impact and shear testing was done on all the plates as per ASTM standards and the responses were noted and plots were drawn and studied for the orientation for which the material possessed best property. The second part of the study was, with the experimental results got from the woven orientation, analysis was done by ANSYS and LS-DYNA software for the mechanical property and the responses got, was matching with the experimental testing methods and found that both the results were nearly the same thereby optimizing the results achieved. This is presented in detail in the forth coming chapters. The studies revealed that the fibre parameters taken had a significant influence on the mechanical properties. It was found that at a particular weight fraction the mechanical properties achieved the highest values in case of random orientation and particular woven orientations in case woven types. The increase in layers also had an influence over the property of the material. This composite prepared also initiates us in preparing newer composites with existing natural fibers, which haven’t been yet explored and which can reduce the cost. This gives way also in preparation of the same and releasing a newer variety of material to the Engineering industry which can be suited for some required application.
Abstract: The aim of this investigation is to study the use of the water soluble polyethylene glycol as self-curing agent. The function of self-curing agents is to reduce the water evaporation from concrete and hence they increase the water retention capacity of concrete compared to the conventionally cured concrete.The use of self-curing admixtures is very important from the point of view that saving of water is a necessity everyday (each one cubic meter of concrete requires 3m3 of water for a construction, most of which is used for curing). In this study, compressive strength and split tensile strength of concrete containing self-curing agent is investigated and compared with that of conventionally cured concrete.It is experimentally found by the authors that the concrete cast with polyethylene glycol as self-curing agent is stronger than that obtained by sprinkler curing as well as by immersion curing. In this project, foundry sand is replaced as a fine aggregate. It is also tested with conventional concrete and self curing concrete with 5% and 10% replacement of foundary sand which has been tested for compressive strength and split tensile strength for 7days and 28 days of curing and their results are compared. The compressive strength by 13.62%, 18.83% and 22.43%when compared to the Con mix at the age of 7 days and also 5.40%, 8.90% and 14.16% at the age of 28 days. Mixtures WSPG and WSPG with FS enhanced their tensile strength by 14.50%, 16.36% and 20.82% when compared to the Con mix at the age of 7 days and also 4.30%,8.15% and 12.90% at the age of 28 days.
Abstract: Conventional casting process cannot produce parts as strong as forged parts. Also there are chances of many casting defects such as porosity, hot tears, shrinkage, pin holes, blow holes, mould shift flash, slag, short casting, when casting method is used for fabrication. Thus cast parts only have low mechanical properties. Recent trend is to use Squeeze Casting, which results in superior mechanical and casting properties. This technique is a hybrid metal forming process combining features of both casting and forging in one operation. This process is suitable for low melting alloys like iron and nickel with mechanical properties enhancement. Reduction in micro porosity in cast part and also reduction in machining. Historically, the series of LM were developed for high strength, corrosion resistance, and good machinability for many applications. In this study Squeeze Casting process has been used, since it has porosity free equiaxed grain components of LM 25 composition and cylindrical shaped castings were manufactured successfully by squeeze casting machine at high temperature and high pressure. The first part of the study is about the microstructure of the LM 25 Al-7 Si-0.3 Mg-0.5 Fe alloy. The casting products were made by addition of nano particles and without nano particles. The size of bar casted was by squeeze casting process. It was 260 mm*46mm (7 Pieces). Microstructure of Cast without squeeze and without stirrer, without squeeze and with stirrer, with squeeze and with stirrer Alloys was studied. The second part of the work was the heat treatment process of the finished product. Heat treatment process was conducted at 490○C and for the heat treated metals was quenched at 30○C (water) for the heat treated and unheated metal casting product were taken and microstructure were studied. The results were compared before and after the heat treatment process for addition of nano particles and without nano particles.