Applied Mechanics and Manufacturing Technology

Volume 87

doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.87

Paper Title Page

Authors: Ming Hung Lai, Fuh Liang Wen, Yu Lin Shen, Min Sun Ouyang
Abstract: Through the estimated method for constraint-tuning modified-mode (CTMM), an innovative thin-disc piezoelectric ultrasonic actuator is used to drive an optical sled in this study. With four screws positioned on the thin-disc actuator at the angle distribution of 00, 900, 1800, and 3200, both modified modes of ((1, 2))C and ((1, 1))S in vibration provide an approximate equilibrium force to push an optical sled in bilateral movement. The innovative ultrasonic actuator has the vibrator’s compact and thinner structure, a thickness of 3 millimeters, without a gearbox rather than a conventional DC sled motor. Using contact friction to drive an optical sled with quick tracking in bilateral motion, experimental results demonstrate obtaining the desired function by a proposed single-phase, bi-frequency LC resonant driving circuit as well as remaining the original sled controller. The general specification of linear speed achieves 200-300 mm/s at less power dissipation for pushing the CD652A BenQ sled drive with 1.0 N output force and 20%-33% efficiency.
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Authors: Surachai Dechkunakorn, Rutchadakorn Isarapatanapong, Niwat Anuwongnukroh, Nattiree Chiranavanit, Julathep Kajorchaiyakul, Anak Khantachawana
Abstract: Objective: To clarify mechanical properties of 14 superelastic NiTi orthodontic wires by three-point bending tests. Materials and Methods: The three-point bending test was conducted with a midspan deflection rate of 5 mm/min under constant temperature range 36±1°C. Wires were deflected to 3.1 mm. All data were recorded during the unloading process at deflections 3, 2, 1 and 0.5 mm. to simulate the force a wire exerts as a tooth is moved into the dental arch from a position of malocclusion. Results: The delivered forces changed slightly when the deflection varied during loading and unloading. Sentalloy wire applied the lowest continuous force. Conclusions: Commercial wires may not behave similarly due to minor differences in the production process, and force varies greatly from brand to brand. NiTi wire brands must be selected carefully considering the severity of malocclusion and stage of orthodontic treatment.
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Authors: Rutchadakorn Isarapatanapong, Surachai Dechkunakorn, Niwat Anuwongnukroh, Nattiree Chiranavanit, Julathep Kajorchaiyakul, Anak Khantachawana
Abstract: Objective: The study aimed to clarify the compositions of 14 brands of superelastic NiTi orthodontic wires. Materials and Methods: The compositions were analysed through scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The wires were tested in differential scanning calorimetry to find the transitional temperature range. Results: The compositions were nickel (50.085%-51.605%), titanium (46.675%-48.140%), copper (0.995%-1.155%), aluminum (0.220%-1.325%), chromium (0%-0.275%) and iron (0%-0.030%). None contained cobalt. G&H, Ormco, AMDG, IMD, Smart, TruFlex, Force 1, NIC, Sentalloy, Ortho Supply and Flexwire were almost or completely austenitic in the oral environment, whereas Highland, Grikin and Unitex were a mixture of austenitic and martensitic phase. The wires showed austenitic finish temperatures ranging from 17°C to 59°C. Conclusions: The results show that NiTi orthodontic arch wires have differences in composition and phase transformation. This information is valuable to evaluate differences in NiTi orthodontic wires for clinical use.
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Authors: Xue Gang Yuan, Da Tian Niu, Shu Qiang Cong, Xiao Wei Liu
Abstract: The oscillation problem is examined for a rectangular sealing ring composed of a class of transversely isotropic incompressible vulcanized rubber materials about radial direction, where the sealing ring is subjected to a suddenly applied radial load at its inner surface. A nonlinear ordinary differential equation that describes the radial motion of the sealing ring is obtained. It is proved that if the applied load is lower than the critical load, the motion of the rubber ring with time will present a nonlinear periodic oscillation, while if it exceeds the critical load, the motion will increase infinitely with the increasing time and so the rubber ring will be destroyed ultimately.
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Authors: Jian Feng He, Xiao Xiong Jin
Abstract: Powertrain mounting system of a Hybrid Electrical Vehicle (HEV) is analyzed and researched, the expression of energy distribution matrix and that of mounting reaction force are derived, and mathematical model of the system is established in Matlab. Correctness of the model established is tested and verified through model establishing for simulation and calculation in ADAMS. Features of Hybrid Genetic Algorithm (HGA) for multiobjective optimization are analyzed and researched, model for calculation of multiobjective optimization using Hybrid Genetic Algorithm is established, targets for optimization of the system are determined, and optimization is executed based on the mounting stiffness parameters. The result that the system is optimized apparently by Hybrid Genetic Algorithm is revealed through contrast of the energy distribution matrix and mounting reaction force of pre and post-optimization.
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Authors: Jin Xiang Wang, Rui Jin Zhao, Xiao Li Zhang
Abstract: The metallic glass particles reinforced aluminum matrix composites without obvious defects were obtained successfully by explosive compaction of mixed powders. The quasi-static compressive mechanical properties of the composites with the reinforcement matrix mass fraction 10%, 15% and 20% respectively were researched recur to universal testing machine of Instron 3367 and self-consistent theory. Finally, reinforcement mechanism of the metallic glass particles on the matrix was analyzed by numerical simulation recur to LS-DYNA program. The results show that the mechanical properties obtained by self-consistent theory are well accord with the experimental results; compared with pure aluminum, the yield stress of the composites with metallic glass particles reinforcement of the mass fraction 20% enhances 46.8 percent; the main reinforcement mechanism is the amorphous particles can undertake higher loading, the combined quality of the reinforcement particles with the matrix and the distribute uniformity of the reinforcement particles are important factors which will affect the reinforcement effects.
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Authors: Chang Bai Tan, Jiang Xu, Lai Shui Zhou, Lu Ling An, Wei Wei
Abstract: Multi-joint link is a class of typical structure in aircraft assembly. And the quantification of assembly error is very important to tolerance allocation and assembly quality prediction. A novel error analysis model of multi-joint assembly is established based on linkage mechanism theory. First, a virtual linkage mechanism will be created according to specific structural character and tolerance of joint linkage. And then, the input-output equation of linkage mechanism can be derived by vector method. Subsequently, the coaxiality and coplanarity error analysis models are developed respectively for three-joint and four-joint assembly. Finally, a case study on the elevator & horizontal empennage docking demonstrates the proposed method.
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Authors: Hai Chen Lin
Abstract: This thesis use AOC15/50 blade as baseline model which is a composite wind turbine blade made of glass/epoxy for a horizontal axis wind turbine. A finite element modeling of composite wind turbine blade was created using the SHELL element of ANSYS. Then we study how to use the carbon fiber material replaces the glass fiber to make the hybrid blade, and find a suitable layup to improve the performance of the blade. The hybrid blade was made through introducing carbon fibers. Different models, with introducing different number of carbon fibers, 75% carbon fibers replace unidirectional glass fibers in spar cap of blade model which can achieve best structure performance. The wind turbine blades are often fabricated by hand using multiple of glass fiber-reinforced polyester resin or glass fiber-reinforced epoxy resin. As commercial machines get bigger, this could not to meet the demands. The advantages of carbon fiber composite materials are used by blade producer. Studies show that carbon fiber has high strength-to-weight ratio and resistance fatigue properties. Carbon fiber is mixed with epoxy resin to make into carbon fiber-reinforced polymer. Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer is the one of best blade materials for resistance bad weather. The stiffness of carbon fiber composite is 2 or 3 times higher than glass fiber composite [1], but the cost of carbon fiber composite is 10 times higher than glass fiber composite. If all of wind turbine blades are made of carbon fiber composite, it will be very expensive. Therefore carbon/glass fiber hybrid composite blade has become a research emphasis in the field of blade materials. This paper gives an example of finite element modeling composite wind turbine blade in ANSYS by means of the medium-length blade of AOC 15/50 horizontal axis wind turbine. This model can be directly used in dynamics analysis and does not need to be imported from the CAD software into finite element program. This finite element modeling of composite wind turbine blade was created using the SHELL element of ANSYS. Then we study how to use the carbon fiber material replaces the glass fiber to make the hybrid blade, and find a suitable lay-up to improve the performance of the blade.
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Authors: Peng Zheng, Duo Zuo, Yuan Hui Wang
Abstract: We design a set of milling head test series in order to test the properties of the A/C double angular milling head. The article gives the primary test method as a comprehensive test for the whole series’ property, precision, stiffness, and mechanical performance to make the milling head excellent property.
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