Abstract: The manufacturing of expanded clay represents a certain hazard to the environment and human health. The emissions contain a significant amount of fine dust, and the enterprises are located in close proximity to residential areas. Fine dust particles can stay in the air for a long time, they are transported over long distances thereby increasing the contaminated zone. The OND-86 method (the Industry Regulatory Document) is used to calculate dust dispersion in the atmosphere, which does not take into account a series of factors that determine the dispersion parameters, for example, air humidity. The authors have obtained one-parameter regression equations between the concentration of expanded clay dust in atmospheric air and the influencing factors: air temperature, relative air humidity, distance from the source, wind speed. A strong correlation dependence between the concentration of expanded clay dust and the relative air humidity has been established. An adequate multiple correlation equation that establishes a relationship between the dust concentration and the factors listed has been obtained. The given equation was used in practice when performing dispersion calculations, including the forecasting ones. The authors give the forecast of pollution with expanded clay dust for 2018.
Abstract: The paper shows that the fulfillment of construction works influences the level of fine dust content in urban environment. Investigations of fine dust emissions in the zones of earth excavations and soil spoil banks caused by construction works were carried out. The authors conducted an integrated investigation of the physico-chemical processes in the surface layer of the atmosphere in the course of construction works, which was based on the field and computational experiments. With the help of a laboratory wind-tunnel plant, it was revealed that the character of dust emission during the development of dispersive massifs depends on the climatic conditions, in particular on the wind velocity and the physical-and-mechanical properties of the rocks (humidity, porosity, plasticity indices). A specific-purpose GIS application has been designed which allows modelling the dynamics of air flows in the territories with anthropogenic development. The application is based on the methods of mathematical and simulation modelling, the methods of visualization and surface plotting as well as the methods of software applications development.
Abstract: The dependences of the concentration profile and the particle size distribution of asbestos-cement dust on the dimensions of working room along the horizontal and vertical axes were obtained in the work. The paper considers the dependence of the median size values of dust particles on the methods of air exchange organization in the working room.