Study on Hydraulic Flow in Stratified Pipe Performed by Numerical Simulation


Article Preview

An idea of introducing an underground floodway inspired by Storm-water Management and Road Tunnel (SMART) in Malaysia is considered attractive to minimize land utilization regarding to the flood problem in Jakarta. This research was aimed to know the flow behavior of this modified tunnel due to sudden transitions, pressure losses and loss coefficients using numerical modeling. The simulation was conducted in the three-dimensional model using FLUENT Software which was divided into three models, i.e., contraction, enlargement, and straight pipe model. The simulation model was followed the geometrical design of SMART which the area ratio between smaller and larger pipe, A1/A2 varied, namely 0.20, 0.50, and 0.80. Standard k-ε and equilibrium wall function were used in straight pipe model, while contraction and enlargement model used k-ε modified and non-equilibrium wall function. The effect of different Reynolds number was also studied in this research. The result of the simulation showed that hydraulic parameters and area ratio of sudden transitions pipe give significant effect towards losses along the pipe. FLUENT simulation result gave good agreement with Darcy-Weisbach formula. The results indicate that loss coefficient decreases with the increase in pipe area ratio. The increase in pressure head loss was incurred by severe separated regions in the vicinity of pipe transition which was proved by typical flow pattern. Variation of Reynolds number also showed a different area of separation flow, yet the flow pattern was somewhat similar.



Edited by:

Djoko Legono, Radianta Triatmaja, Prof. Priyosulistyo, Veerasak Likhitruangsilp, Lim Pang Zen, Teuku Faisal Fathani, Ali Awaludin, Intan Supraba, Imam Muthohar, Dr. Endita, Fikri Faris and Dr. Inggar Septhia Irawati




A. Hairani et al., "Study on Hydraulic Flow in Stratified Pipe Performed by Numerical Simulation", Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vol. 881, pp. 3-14, 2018

Online since:

May 2018




* - Corresponding Author

[1] The World Bank, Jakarta-Urban Challenges in A Changing Climate. Working Paper, World Bank, Washington D.C., (2011).

[2] Information on

[3] M. Santhiman, L. Weei, ITS of SMART, PIARC International Seminar on Intelligent Transport System (ITS) in Road Network Operations, Kuala Lumpur, (2006).

[4] E. F. Brater, H. W. King, J.E. Lindell, C.Y. Wei, Handbook of Hydraulics, seven ed., Mc Graw Hill, New York, (1996).

[5] J. Vennard, R. L. Street, Elementary Fluid Mechanics, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, (1982).

[6] R. Benedict, Fundamentals of Pipe Flow, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, (1980).

[7] V. Roy, S. Majumder, D. Sanyal, Analysis of the turbulent fluid flow in an axi-symmetric sudden expansion, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology. 2(6) (2010) 1569-1574.

[8] I. Florescu, D. Flourescu, D. Nedelcu, Study about the fluid losses in the branching pipes, Proceedings in Manufacturing Systems. 7(4) (2012) 275-279.

[9] Fluent Inc, Fluent Theory Guide, CFD Software Package Fluent Ver. 6.3, Fluent Inc, Lebanon, (2005).

[10] B. Launder, D. Spalding, Mathematical Models of Turbulence, Academic Press, New York, (1972).

[11] J. Rajasekaran, On The Flow Characteristics behind A Backward-facing Step and The Design of A New Axisymmetric Model for Their Study, Master Thesis, Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, (2011).

[12] D. Legono, A. Rahardjo, A. Hairani, Hydraulics Flow Through Stratified Pipe as Revealed by Experimental Study, Proceedings of the 19th IAHR-APD Congress, Hanoi, (2014).

Fetching data from Crossref.
This may take some time to load.