Durability of Pultruded Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composite Subjected to Hygrothermal Ageing in Sea Water


Article Preview

Durability of glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite is an important research topic because the changes occur in GFRP composite with ageing can affect its properties and lifetime. For long term use, GFRP composites should be examined in real time and with reasonable in-service environments. However, this is not practical because the time involved would significantly delay product development and therefore, accelerated ageing technique is required. Conditioning in wet and elevated temperatures known as hygrothermal ageing is a very useful technique to evaluate the durability of GFRP composites in a reasonable timeframe. In this work, pultruded GFRP composites were aged in sea water and in dry conditions at 23, 55 and 75°C for 0, 8 and 20 months to assess the changes in shear properties (e.g. short beam shear strength, SBSS and transverse shear strength, TSS) and in glass transition temperature, Tg. After ageing in sea water for 20 months, SBSS was found to retain by about 101, 102 and 95% at 23, 55 and 75°C, respectively. On the other hand, SBSS was retained by around 106% after ageing in dry condition for 20 months at 55 and 75°C. TSS was found to retain by approximately 99, 95 and 91% after ageing in sea water for 20 months at 23, 55 and 75°C, respectively, whereas TSS of dry conditioned samples was retained by about 105 and 107% at 55 and 75°C, respectively. Tg, measured by dynamic mechanical thermal analyser, showed little change both in wet and dry conditions at different temperatures and time.



Edited by:

Leandro Bolzoni




M. A. Sawpan, "Durability of Pultruded Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composite Subjected to Hygrothermal Ageing in Sea Water", Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vol. 884, pp. 14-22, 2018

Online since:

August 2018




* - Corresponding Author

[1] J.-P. Won, C.-G. Park, Effect of Environmental Exposure on the Mechanical and Bonding Properties of Hybrid FRP Reinforcing Bars for Concrete Structures, J Comp. Mater. 40 (2006) 1063-1076.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0021998305057362

[2] M.A. Sawpan, Effects of alkaline conditioning and temperature on the properties of glass fiber polymer composite rebar, Polym Comp. 37 (2016) 3181-3190.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/pc.23516

[3] B. Benmokrane, P. Wang, T.M. Ton-That, H. Rahman, J.-F. Robert, Durability of Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Reinforcing Bars in Concrete Environment, J Comp. Constr. 6 (2002) 143-153.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)1090-0268(2002)6:3(143)

[4] I. Kafodya, G. Xian, H. Li, Durability study of pultruded CFRP plates immersed in water and seawater under sustained bending: Water uptake and effects on the mechanical properties, Composites Part B. 70 (2015) 138-148.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2014.10.034

[5] M. Bazli, H. Ashrafi, A.V. Oskouei, Effect of harsh environments on mechanical properties of GFRP pultruded profiles, Composites Part B. 99 (2016) 203-215.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2016.06.019

[6] V. Dejke, Durability and Service Life Prediction of GFRP for Concrete Reinforcement, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, (2002).

[7] M.A. Sawpan, A.A. Mamun, P.G. Holdsworth, Long term durability of pultruded polymer composite rebar in concrete environment, Mater Des. 57 (2014) 616-624.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2014.01.049

[8] A. Pantuso, G. Spadea, R.N. Swamy, An experimental study on the durability of GFRP bars, Proceedings of Second International Conference on Composites in Infrastructure, ICCI'98, Arizona, USA, 1998, pp.476-487.

[9] A. Abbasi, P.J. Hogg, Temperature and environmental effects on glass fibre rebar: modulus, strength and interfacial bond strength with concrete, Composites Part B. 36 (2005) 394-404.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2005.01.006

[10] Y. Chen, J.F. Davalos, I. Ray, H.-Y. Kim, Accelerated aging tests for evaluations of durability performance of FRP reinforcing bars for concrete structures, Comp. Struct. 78 (2007) 101-111.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2005.08.015

[11] R. Masmoudi, G. Nkurunziza, B. Benmokrane, P. Cousin, Durability of glass FRP composite bars for concrete structure reinforcement under tensile sustained load in wet and alkaline environments, Proceedings of Annual Conference of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering, Moncton, Canada, 2003, pp.32-40.

[12] R. Sen, G. Mullins, T. Salem, Durability of E-Glass/Vinylester Reinforcement in Alkaline Solution, ACI Struct J. 99 (2002) 369-375.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14359/11921

[13] Z. Wang, X.-L. Zhao, G. Xian, G. Wu, R.K. Singh Raman, S. Al-Saadi, A. Haque, Long-term durability of basalt- and glass-fibre reinforced polymer (BFRP/GFRP) bars in seawater and sea sand concrete environment, Constr Build Mater. 139 (2017).

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.02.038

[14] B. Benmokrane, M. Robert, H.M. Mohamed, A.H. Ali, P. Cousin, Durability Assessment of Glass FRP Solid and Hollow Bars (Rock Bolts) for Application in Ground Control of Jurong Rock Caverns in Singapore, J. Comp. Constr. 21 (2017) 06016002.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)cc.1943-5614.0000775

[15] ASTM D 7617/D 7617M, Standard Test Method for Transverse Shear Strength of Fiber-reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite Bars, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, (2011).

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1520/d7617_d7617m-11

[16] ASTM D 4475, Standard Test Method for Apparent Horizontal Shear Strength of Pultruded Reinforced Plastic Rods By the Short-Beam Method, ASTM International, PA, (2002).

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1520/d4475-02r08

[17] J.S. Earl, R.A. Shenoi, Hygrothermal ageing effects on FRP laminate and structural foam materials, Composites Part A. 35 (2004) 1237-1247.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2004.04.007

[18] T.R. Gentry, Transverse shear of GFRP rods: TEST Method development and potential for durability assessment, Fourth International Conference on Durability & Sustainability of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites for Construction and Rehabilitation, Quebec, Canada, (2011).

[19] ASTM D 4065, Standard Practice for Plastics: Dynamic Mechanical Properties: Determination and Report of Procedures, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, (2006).

[20] H. Gu, Dynamic mechanical analysis of the seawater treated glass/polyester composites, Mater Des. 30 (2009) 2774-2777.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2008.09.029

[21] W.K. Goertzen, M.R. Kessler, Dynamic mechanical analysis of carbon/epoxy composites for structural pipeline repair, Composites Part B. 38 (2007) 1-9.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2006.06.002

[22] L.A. Pothan, S. Thomas, G. Groeninckx, The role of fibre/matrix interactions on the dynamic mechanical properties of chemically modified banana fibre/polyester composites, Composites Part A. 37 (2006) 1260-1269.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2005.09.001