Yield of Binary Ti-Cu and Ti-Mn Alloys Produced via Powder Metallurgy


Article Preview

High strength, low density, good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility is the combination of properties that Ti and its alloys can provide for engineering applications. Its costs are the most important limiting factor for the widespread use of Ti. Cost reduction for Ti alloys can derive from the use of cheaper alloying elements as well as the use of alternative manufacturing techniques. In this study binary Ti-X alloys (where X = Cu or Mn) were formulated and produced using the conventional powder metallurgy route of pressing and sintering. These chemical elements were selected because they are β stabilisers and can be used to create α+β Ti alloys. The study shows that with the techniques and processing parameters used handable products without delamination can be pressed. Moreover, chemically homogenous materials with density and mechanical property values comparable to those of other wrought-equivalent Ti alloys produced via powder metallurgy were achieved.



Edited by:

Leandro Bolzoni




Y. Alshammari et al., "Yield of Binary Ti-Cu and Ti-Mn Alloys Produced via Powder Metallurgy", Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vol. 884, pp. 49-57, 2018

Online since:

August 2018




* - Corresponding Author

[1] C. Leyens, M. Peters, Titanium and Titanium Alloys. Fundamentals and Applications, Wiley-VCH, Köln, Germany, (2003).

[2] L. Bolzoni, T. Weissgaerber, B. Kieback, E.M. Ruiz-Navas, E. Gordo, Mechanical Behaviour of Pressed and Sintered CP Ti and Ti-6Al-7Nb Alloy Obtained from Master Alloy Addition Powder, Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 20 (2013).

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2012.08.022

[3] T. Fujita, A. Ogawa, C. Ouchi, H. Tajima, Microstructure and Properties of Titanium Alloy Produced in the Newly Developed Blended Elemental Powder Metallurgy Process, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 213 (1996) 148-153.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0921-5093(96)10232-x

[4] F.H. Froes, M.N. Gungor, M.A. Imam, Cost-affordable Titanium: The Component Fabrication Perspective, JOM, 59 (2007) 28-31.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11837-007-0074-8

[5] M. Qian, F.H. Froes, Titanium Powder Metallurgy - Science, Technology and Applications., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, U.K., (2015).

[6] L. Bolzoni, E.M. Ruiz-Navas, E. Gordo, Flexural Properties, Thermal Conductivity and Electrical Resistivity of Prealloyed and Master Alloy Addition Powder Metallurgy Ti-6Al-4V, Materials and Design, 52 (2013) 888-895.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2013.06.036

[7] Q. Wang, C. Dong, P.K. Liaw, Structural Stabilities of β-Ti Alloys Studied Using a New Mo Equivalent Derived from [β/(α + β)] Phase-Boundary Slopes, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 46 (2015) 3440-3447.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-015-2923-3

[8] J. Liu, F. Li, C. Liu, H. Wang, B. Ren, K. Yang, E. Zhang, Effect of Cu Content on the Antibacterial Activity of Titanium-Copper Sintered Alloys, Materials Science and Engineering: C, 35 (2014) 392-400.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2013.11.028

[9] M. Kikuchi, Y. Takada, S. Kiyosue, M. Yoda, M. Woldu, Z. Cai, O. Okuno, T. Okabe, Mechanical Properties and Microstructures of Cast Ti-Cu Alloys, Dental Materials, 19 (2003) 174-181.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0109-5641(02)00027-1

[10] J.-W. Kim, M.-J. Hwang, M.-K. Han, Y.-G. Kim, H.-J. Song, Y.-J. Park, Effect of Manganese on the Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Behavior of Titanium Alloys, Materials Chemistry and Physics, 180 (2016) 341-348.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2016.06.016

[11] P.F. Santos, M. Niinomi, K. Cho, M. Nakai, H. Liu, N. Ohtsu, M. Hirano, M. Ikeda, T. Narushima, Microstructures, Mechanical Properties and Cytotoxicity of Low Cost Beta Ti-Mn Alloys for Biomedical Applications, Acta Biomaterialia, 26 (2015).

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2015.08.015

[12] J.L. Murray, Phase Diagrams of Binary Titanium Alloys, 1st ed., ASM International, (1987).

[13] L. Bolzoni, I. Montealegre Meléndez, E.M. Ruiz-Navas, E. Gordo, Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of the Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Produced by Vacuum Hot-pressing, Materials Science and Engineering A, 546 (2012) 189-197.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2012.03.050

[14] O.M. Ivasishin, D.G. Savvakin, F. Froes, V.C. Mokson, K.A. Bondareva, Synthesis of Alloy Ti-6Al-4V with Low Residual Porosity by a Powder Metallurgy Method, Powder Metallurgy and Metal Ceramics, 41 (2002) 382-390.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1021117126537

[15] R. Boyer, G. Welsch, E.W. Collings, Materials Properties Handbook: Titanium Alloys, in: A. International (Ed.), Ohio, USA, (1998).

[16] ASTM B610, Standard Test Method for Measuring Dimensional Change of Metal Powder Specimens Due to Sintering, (2000).

[17] ASTM B962, Standard Test Methods for Density of Compacted or Sintered Powder Metallurgy (PM) Products Using Archimedes' Principle, (2008).

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1520/b0962

[18] O.M. Ivasishin, Cost-effective Manufacturing of Titanium Parts with Powder Metallurgy Approach, Materials Forum 29 (2005) 1-8.

[19] L. Bolzoni, E.M. Ruiz-Navas, E. Gordo, Feasibility Study of the Production of Biomedical Ti-6Al-4V Alloy by Powder Metallurgy, Materials Science and Engineering C, 49 (2015) 400-407.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2015.01.043

[20] M. Holm, T. Ebel, M. Dahms, Investigations on Ti-6Al-4V with Gadolinium Addition Fabricated by Metal Injection Moulding, Materials and Design, 51 (2013) 943-948.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2013.05.003

[21] ASTM B348, Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Bars and Billets, (2013).

[22] Y. Itoh, H. Miura, K. Sato, M. Niinomi, Fabrication of Ti-6Al-7Nb Alloys by Metal Injection Molding, Materials Science Forum, Progress in Powder Metallurgy, Pts 1 and 2 (2007) 357-360.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.4028/0-87849-419-7.357