Physical Properties and Rheological Characteristics of Activated Carbon Nanofluids with Varying Filler Fractions and Surfactants


Article Preview

For the past fifteen years, there has been considerable interest in the use of nanofluids in various fields mainly in heat transfer applications. This paper investigated thermophysical properties of activated carbon nanofluids using hexane, water and ethylene glycol (EG) as base fluids. Experimental and qualitative observational tests were conducted to study the viscosity, specific heat capacity and stability of the nanofluids using arabinogalactan (ARB), sodium lauryl sulphate (SDS) and TritonX-114 as stabilising agents. The results revealed that the addition of ARB to activated carbon-water (C/H2O) nanofluids yielded nanofluid stability for up to 39 days. However, ARB decreased the heat capacity of C/H2O nanofluid. C/H2O nanofluid viscosity decreased with an increase in shear rate. On the other hand, results revealed that C/C6H14 viscosity increased with the increase in shear rate specifically for high shear rate values. C/H2O heat capacity was enhanced by 6.1% compared to C/EG that decreased by 6.3%. Keywords: Nanofluids; Viscosity; Specific heat capacity; Surfactant; Stability.



Edited by:

Leandro Bolzoni




K. Abdul et al., "Physical Properties and Rheological Characteristics of Activated Carbon Nanofluids with Varying Filler Fractions and Surfactants", Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vol. 884, pp. 58-65, 2018

Online since:

August 2018




* - Corresponding Author

[1] P. Simon, Y. Gogotsi, Materials for electrochemical capacitors, Nat. Mater. 7 (2008) 845–854..

[2] D. Yang, F. Yang, J. Hu, J. Long, C. Wang, D. Fu, Q. Ni, Hydrophilic multi-walled carbon nanotubes decorated with magnetite nanoparticles as lymphatic targeted drug delivery vehicles, Chem. Commun. (2009) 4447–4449..

[3] L. Léal, M. Miscevic, P. Lavieille, M. Amokrane, F. Pigache, F. Topin, B. Nogarède, L. Tadrist, An overview of heat transfer enhancement methods and new perspectives: Focus on active methods using electroactive materials, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 61 (2013) 505–524..

[4] J.A. Eastman, S.U.S. Choi, S. Li, W. Yu, L.J. Thompson, Anomalously increased effective thermal conductivities of ethylene glycol-based nanofluids containing copper nanoparticles, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78 (2001) 718–720..

[5] K.S. Suganthi, K.S. Rajan, Metal oxide nanofluids: Review of formulation, thermo-physical properties, mechanisms, and heat transfer performance, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 76 (2017) 226–255..

[6] S.U.S. Choi, J.A. Eastman, Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles, ASME Int. Mech. Eng. Congr. Expo. 66 (1995) 99–105..

[7] O.A. Alawi, N.A.C. Sidik, H.W. Xian, T.H. Kean, S.N. Kazi, Thermal conductivity and viscosity models of metallic oxides nanofluids, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 116 (2018) 1314–1325..

[8] G. Colangelo, E. Favale, P. Miglietta, M. Milanese, A. De Risi, Thermal conductivity , viscosity and stability of Al 2 O 3 -diathermic oil nano fl uids for solar energy systems, Energy. 95 (2016) 124–136..

[9] H. Tiznobaik, D. Shin, Enhanced specific heat capacity of high-temperature molten salt-based nanofluids, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 57 (2013) 542–548..

[10] J. Seo, D. Shin, Size effect of nanoparticle on specific heat in a ternary nitrate (LiNO3-NaNO3-KNO3) salt eutectic for thermal energy storage, Appl. Therm. Eng. 102 (2016) 144–148..

[11] M.H. Hamzah, N.A.C. Sidik, T.L. Ken, R. Mamat, G. Najafi, Factors affecting the performance of hybrid nanofluids: A comprehensive review, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 115 (2017) 630–646..

[12] A.A. Minea, Challenges in hybrid nanofluids behavior in turbulent flow: Recent research and numerical comparison, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 71 (2017) 426–434..

[13] L. Yang, Y. Hu, Toward TiO2 Nanofluids—Part 2: Applications and Challenges, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 12 (2017) 446..

[14] H. Farzaneh, A. Behzadmehr, M. Yaghoubi, A. Samimi, S.M.H. Sarvari, Stability of nanofluids: Molecular dynamic approach and experimental study, Energy Convers. Manag. 111 (2016) 1–14..

[15] S.M.S. Murshed, K.C. Leong, C. Yang, Enhanced thermal conductivity of TiO2 - Water based nanofluids, Int. J. Therm. Sci. 44 (2005) 367–373..

[16] M. Kole, T.K. Dey, Investigation of thermal conductivity, viscosity, and electrical conductivity of graphene based nanofluids, J. Appl. Phys. 113 (2013)..

[17] W. of S. [v.5.27.2], Web of Science Core Collection Citation Report, (2018) Activated carbon.

[18] N.A.C. Sidik, H.A. Mohammed, O.A. Alawi, S. Samion, A review on preparation methods and challenges of nanofluids, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf. 54 (2014) 115–125..

[19] Z. Haddad, C. Abid, H.F. Oztop, A. Mataoui, A review on how the researchers prepare their nanofluids, Int. J. Therm. Sci. 76 (2014) 168–189..

[20] Y. Hu, Y. He, Z. Zhang, D. Wen, Effect of Al2O3 nanoparticle dispersion on the specific heat capacity of a eutectic binary nitrate salt for solar power applications, Energy Convers. Manag. 142 (2017) 366–373..

[21] S. Bell, A Beginner's Guide to Uncertainty of Measurement, Meas. Good Pract. Guid. (1999) 41..

[22] A. Sánchez-Coronilla, J. Navas, T. Aguilar, E.I. Martín, J.J. Gallardo, M.R. Gómez-Villarejo, M.I. Carrillo-Berdugo, R. Alcántara, C. Fernández-Lorenzo, J. Martín-Calleja, The Role of Surfactants in the Stability of NiO Nanofluids: An Experimental and DFT Study, ChemPhysChem. 18 (2017) 346–356..

[23] A.R. Harikrishnan, S.K. Das, P.K. Agnihotri, P. Dhar, Particle and surfactant interactions effected polar and dispersive components of interfacial energy in nanocolloids, J. Appl. Phys. 122 (2017)..

[24] M.R. Mucalo, C.R. Bullen, M. Manley-Harris, T.M. McIntire, Arabinogalactan from the Western larch tree: A new, purified and highly water-soluble polysaccharide-based protecting agent for maintaining precious metal nanoparticles in colloidal suspension, J. Mater. Sci. 37 (2002) 493–504..

[25] M. Le Maire, P. Champeil, J. V. Møller, Interaction of membrane proteins and lipids with solubilizing detergents, Biochim. Biophys. Acta - Biomembr. 1508 (2000) 86–111..

[26] K. Szymczyk, A. Taraba, Aggregation behavior of Triton X-114 and Tween 80 at various temperatures and concentrations studied by density and viscosity measurements, J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 126 (2016) 315–326..

[27] A. Kaggwa, C. Wang, Investigation of Thermal-Hydrodynamic Heat Transfer Performance of R-1234ze and R-134a Refrigerants in a Microfin and Smooth Tube., J. Enhanc. Heat Transf. 23 (2016) 221–239..

[28] M. Afrand, D. Toghraie, B. Ruhani, Effects of temperature and nanoparticles concentration on rheological behavior of Fe3O4-Ag/EG hybrid nanofluid: An experimental study, Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 77 (2016) 38–44..

[29] Q. He, S. Wang, M. Tong, Y. Liu, Experimental study on thermophysical properties of nanofluids as phase-change material (PCM) in low temperature cool storage, Energy Convers. Manag. 64 (2012) 199–205..

[30] B.-X. Wang, L.-P. Zhou, X.-F. Peng, Surface and Size Effects on the Specific Heat Capacity of Nanoparticles, Int. J. Thermophys. 27 (2006) 139–151..