12th Envibuild – Buildings and Environment – From Research to Application

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Authors: Jürgen Bieser, Karsten Menzel
Abstract: According to studies conducted by Information Technology (IT) analysts, the average cost per minute of IT equipment downtime is about $7,900, depending on the sector the company is active in. The average reported incident length is 86 minutes, resulting in average costs per incident of approximately $690,200 . This illustrates that failure in the operation and maintenance of Data Centre (DC) infrastructure has enormous impacts and consequences. Facility Management (FM) in data centres requires a broad and clear understanding of procedures and processes to avoid human errors and to ensure an economic and reliable operation of the clients’ primary activities. In the DC-industry, availability is the most important factor followed by economical aspects. Therefore, both research and implementation of stable processes with an optimal number of interfaces between IT related functions and FM are necessary to increase the effectiveness and efficiency. Therefore, this paper explains the settings of current FM and maintenance concepts used by the DC-industry. Furthermore, the need for a more innovative approach to ensure an economic and reliable operation of DC in the future is introduced. A special emphasis is on a review of the current status and deficits of facility maintenance und management concepts for DC providing direction for future research. It seems that maintenance has developed from an operational, technically-based activity to a strategically important management function.
Authors: Ulrich Pont, Daniel Latzer, Rudolf Giffinger, Ardeshir Mahdavi
Abstract: The present contribution illustrates recent developments within the research project E_Profil. This project targets the development of a toolbox for the exploration of neighborhood profiles in terms of socio-cultural, urban development and energy-related aspects. Thereby, the major goal is to facilitate an energy and resource efficient and environmentally responsible mid-and long-term development of Austrian cities. The specific contribution described in this paper illustrates a simple methodology for the efficient use of GIS-data toward the derivation of urban development strategies in view of energy usage. In a first step, the geometry data of one (or multiple) specific urban neighborhoods is semantically enriched by additional information (building period, energy status of the buildings, etc.). Such data can be usually found in different archives of the corresponding city or can be collected in-situ. Subsequently, this enriched database must be further processed to form input data bundles, which can be used to derive key performance indicators of individual buildings, selected subsets of the total building stock of the neighborhood or the overall building stock. Based on these procedures, impact analysis of different mid-and long-term transformation policies regarding the energy performance of the neighborhood (s) can be performed in a convenient fashion. This contribution illustrates the approach and delivers a proof of concept based on two urban districts of the city of Linz, Austria.
Authors: Ulrich Pont, Ulrike Herbig, Ardeshir Mahdavi
Abstract: This contribution sheds light on recent research efforts that pertain to the built environment in Indonesia. Within the rich diversity of cultures in the Nusantara archipelago interesting examples can be found that illustrate the adaptation to the challenging environmental conditions. Through this research the possibilities for sophisticated solutions for future are investigated, focusing on the building performance. Architecture and planning tasks in Indonesia have to consider the following preconditions: (i) The prevailing hot and humid climate, which will be strongly influenced by the climate change in the future; (ii) the country’s geography, which consists of a number of wide-spread islands; (iii) the rich and diverse historical development, including a very diverse architectural heritage; (iv) the location within the “Pacific Ring of Fire”, causing recurring natural disasters (e.g. volcano eruptions, earthquakes); (v) a currently ongoing rapid change in socioeconomic key data (economic growth rate, population growth, digitalization); (vi) a strong tendency to urbanization. Whereas these facts are known, as well as the need for energy efficient buildings, the level of knowledge about the performance of buildings in different regions of Indonesia is rather limited. Specifically, regional building traditions are often treated only in historical discourse. Thus, an interdisciplinary research effort that aims to examine Indonesian architecture in a comprehensive and holistic way has been undertaken in the past years, based on works dating back to 2005. In this paper we present parts of these efforts, namely (i) the assessment of a contemporary art museum in the city of Yogyakarta using monitored indoor conditions, and conception of potential future improvement; (ii) Further data collection efforts currently performed on a number of traditional residential buildings, (iii) a review of current, exemplary re-development efforts including the utilization and adaptation of traditional architectural concepts in Indonesia, and (iv) the details of the recently started incentive on interdisciplinary research on Indonesian architecture.
Authors: Ulrike Herbig, Karl Markus Valent, Ulrich Pont, Ardeshir Mahdavi
Abstract: Indonesia has a large variety of socio-spatial patterns that have developed over centuries. These settlement patterns correspond to the social, economic and landscape conditions and are part of the deeply rooted cultural heritage of Indonesia. The cultural heritage but also outstanding natural sites are base for an increasing popularity in tourism all over the Indonesian Archipelago. One of it is the island of Flores including the Komodo National Park that has been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List. The town Labuan Bajo as the entry point to the national park is facing a rapid growth number of visitors after being declared as one of the focal points in of tourist development by the Indonesian government in 2016. With the Sepuluh Bali Baru (10 New Bali) concept the ministry of tourism launched a plan that aims to replicate the economic effects of tourism in Bali nationally. This development brought a number of challenges to the region especially concerning planning matters. One of the plans to deal with the different issues is to create an independent, international and interdisciplinary research center to support the local government, stakeholders and the population of Flores. This paper will describe first studies for a project launched in cooperation of the TU Wien (Vienna University of Technology), Universitas Gadjah Mada, National University of Singapore and the University of Sydney to develop a label for a sustainable tourism for the island if Flores starting with investigations in Labuan Bajo.
Authors: Peter Nageler, Thomas Mach, Richard Heimrath, Hermann Schranzhofer, Christoph Hochenauer
Abstract: Constructing dynamic building models of entire urban districts or cities is a time consuming effort. An automation process is required to shorten the considerable time needed for manual input and to parameterize simulation tools. This paper presents a generation tool for fully automated thermal city modelling that generates dynamic building models with detailed heating systems. The tool is an interface between a PostgreSQL database and the dynamic building energy simulation environment IDA ICE. Tests show that up to 300 automated generated buildings with a simple geometry and 70 buildings each with a heating system can be simulated per CPU.
Authors: Claudia Di Noi, Ardeshir Mahdavi, Michela Dalprà, Antonio Frattari, Maurizio Costantini, Ulrich Pont
Abstract: This paper reports on a project for a senior citizens’ residence in the vicinity of Trento, Italy. The project constitutes the major part of a Master’s thesis in Architectural Engineering, developed at the University of Trento in Italy and at TU Vienna in Austria. The work entails a full account of environmental impacts during the life cycle of the building through LCA (Life Cycle Assessment). Furthermore, as buildings' end of life scenarios are insufficiently considered in most conventional LCA studies, the present contribution attempts to pursue a “cradle to cradle” approach (exploring a closed-loop flow of materials, energy, and resources) and to emphasize that the consequences of the choices made at the early stage of the design phase are critical for the subsequent stages of construction, use, maintenance, and end of life.The work consists of two parts. The first part relating to the architectural project involves careful consideration of the local characteristics of the site according to bioclimatic studies. In the second part, a comparative LCA study of different timber constructions and energy system options is presented, followed by a global LCA of the project. This aims at the estimation of the impacts of construction and end of life. Thereby, different possibilities are explored for reusing and recycling materials, such that disposal and incineration could be reduced as much as possible. Thus, the relative significance of different stages of the building construction, operation, and decommissioning can be explored.In conclusion, the paper offers a number of theoretical reflections on uncertainty analysis in LCA, addressing input assumptions (availability and quality of data) as well those regarding normalization and weighting factors. Thereby, the aim is to contribute to efforts toward a more pervasive application of the LCA methodology in the building design and delivery process.
Authors: Maryna Babenko, Mykola Savytskyi, Michael Schmidt, Silvia Vilčeková, Eva Kridlova-Burdova
Abstract: Actuality. Last years the central Ukraine territories have been faced the new challenge such as the need to provide energy efficient housing and jobs (employment) for displaced people from Donbas regions. In the same time in the state level, the economic development of rural areas, as the agrarian sector is leading today. That is only the multi-disciplinary approach may provide the complex solution for rural support and sustainable development. In the context of circular economy the combination of building and agrarian sectors is logical as the building sector may propose the rational way of agriculture waste recycling and the rural infrastructure development together with new activities providing. The purpose. To develop a scientifically sound model of rural area planning development based in the integration of hybrid multi-functional building structures, taking into account the main principles of sustainable development and circular economy. Methodology. The model is based on a review of scientific work on the problem and the analysis of statistical data. It uses the methods of field research to study the features of sustainable development and energy-efficient structure systems in the rural areas. Findings. A new approach to design and structural solutions of the rural area is proposed, using the innovative hybrid system, which supports the balanced energy and information flows. In this model, the symbiosis of agricultural, administrative, and blocked individual buildings is key to the rural area agrarian building cluster unit, which is energy-efficient and autonomous (independent). The combination of environmental building technologies with modern bio-agricultural technologies can solve many of the socio-economic problems of the modern village - providing affordable quality housing, safe and useful work with green farming technologies, in tourism, and in scientific spheres. The proposed solution integrates rural area cultural and material heritage conservation as a socially important element. The research focuses on environmentally clean and renewable local materials: straw, flax, reed, hemp, earth-concrete, and others. Ideally, the proposal will achieve nearly 100% utilization, or recycling, of the construction and shell building materials in the end of building life cycle. It will also design solutions for nearly zero waste during exploitation. Scientific novelty and practical value. The spatial planning model of the region meets the basic criteria of sustainable development: economic and energy efficiency, social orientation, environmental friendliness, preservation of cultural heritage. The implementation of the proposed new planning model and building construction will facilitate balanced development and renaissance of the rural area.
Authors: Benedek Kiss, Zsuzsa Szalay
Abstract: In the environmental analysis of buildings, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is gaining more and more interest. It is due to the fact, that LCA is very comprehensive in considering many impacts in all life-cycle phases of the examined building. Since buildings have a complicated geometry that is built up with numerous constructions that consist of many materials, and the life-cycle includes many phases, the results of an assessment are likely to be difficult to analyze in detail. In this paper we introduce a visual method to help architects and analysts to quickly understand the results of an environmental assessment. It includes the hierarchic visualization of the performance of the individual elements of the building. Both energy use and environmental impacts can be presented. Also the contribution of the different life-cycle phases in the overall impact is visualized.There are increasing efforts nowadays to find the most efficient way to improve the environmental performance of buildings. This can be supported with a detailed analysis of the results. The method is presented through a case study of a realized energy efficient one-family house.
Authors: Meliha Honic, Iva Kovacic, Helmut Rechberger
Abstract: Building stocks and infrastructures are representing the largest material stock of industrial economies, whereby the largest fraction of building materials is transformed into waste at the end of the life cycle. In order to optimize the recycling potential of buildings, new design-tools and methods are required, whereby it is of utmost importance to have a documentation of the material composition of buildings. In this paper, the methodology for creating a BIM-based Material Passport, enabling optimization of the design of buildings and serving as a documentation of materials existing in buildings, is described. Therefore, a specific building component - the flat roof - of a residential building is used in order to test the proposed tool-chain and show the recycling potential of the built-in materials. Thereby, the recycling potential of a version in timber construction and a version in concrete construction is assessed. The results show that the two versions have a similar recycling rate. However, concrete has a significantly higher mass in comparison to timber, by what the mass of the total waste materials is less in the timber version.
Authors: Nazanin Moazzen, Mustafa Erkan Karaguler, Touraj Ashrafian
Abstract: Energy efficiency has become a crucial part of human life, which has an adverse impact on the social and economic development of any country. In Turkey, it is a critical issue especially in the construction sector due to increase in the dependency on the fuel demands. The energy consumption, which is used during the life cycle of a building, is a huge amount affected by the energy demand for material and building construction, HVAC and lighting systems, maintenance, equipment, and demolition. In general, the Life Cycle Energy (LCE) needs of the building can be summarised as the operational and embodied energy together with the energy use for demolition and recycling processes.Besides, schools alone are responsible for about 15% of the total energy consumption of the commercial building sector. To reduce the energy use and CO2 emission, the operational and embodied energy of the buildings must be minimised. Overall, it seems that choosing proper architectural measures for the envelope and using low emitting material can be a logical step for reducing operational and embodied energy consumptions.This paper is concentrated on the operating and embodied energy consumptions resulting from the application of different architectural measures through the building envelope. It proposes an educational building with low CO2 emission and proper energy performance in Turkey. To illustrate the method of the approach, this contribution illustrates a case study, which was performed on a representative schoold building in Istanbul, Turkey. Energy used for HVAC and lighting in the operating phase and the energy used for the manufacture of the materials are the most significant parts of embodied energy in the LCE analyses. This case study building’s primary energy consumption was calculated with the help of dynamic simulation tools, EnergyPlus and DesignBuilder. Then, different architectural energy efficiency measures were applied to the envelope of the case study building. Then, the influence of proposed actions on LCE consumption and Life Cycle CO2 (LCCO2) emissions were assessed according to the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method.

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