Environmental and Safety Aspects of Renewable Materials and Energy Sources

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Authors: Jozef Mitterpach, Christoph Adam, Dagmar Samešová
Abstract: The paper pinpoints the important aspects of ecodesign when designing a retort with decreased emissions in the production of biochar. When designing changes in the construction of equipment for the production of biochar, the requirements for minimum material and energy demands and the need to reduce emissions to the environment were taken into account. In the pyrolysis processes for the production of biochar, we mainly monitored the following inputs and outputs from/to the environment using life cycle analysis and ecodesign. When the decreasing emissions aspect was not included in an ecodesign, the measurements showed standard damage to the atmosphere characteristic for the production of biochar. The results of measuring emissions from the production of biochar in a retort with decreased emissions showed a significant decrease in emissions. Designs take into consideration the need to minimise the local materials available for the production of equipment for the production of biochar and the availability of raw materials for biochar (mainly accessible and suitable waste). The overall environmental profile (assessment) of biochar is improving based on this construction and conceptual design. Using such a strategic approach, other applications for ecodesign, inventory analysis and assessment of the life cycle of biochar are possible.
Authors: Tomáš Bakalár, Henrieta Pavolová, Erik Weiss
Abstract: The issue of renewable energy in revitalizing brownfields is currently important especially in the development of individual municipalities. Reuse of brownfields in terms of municipalities in Slovakia, which represent economically devastated buildings or the territories used inefficiently, with a strong negative impact on the wider environment of municipalities, requires cooperation of the state and the public sector with private sector businesses. The article points to the possibility of using selected renewable energy sources in removing negative aspects caused by the existence of brownfields in the territory of south-eastern Slovakia. It stresses on the benefits of addressing this issue in the proposed model of evaluation of renewable energy recovery and reuse of brownfields.
Authors: Eva Ružinská, Krzysztof J. Krajewski, Iveta Mitterová, Martin Zachar
Abstract: The paper deals with to evaluate the preparation and properties of polymer blends and fibers prepared from new type of synthetic fibres (bicomponent PP/PA6 with addition of interfacial agent MAH) for the purpose of subsequent production of a highly efficient filter for collection of particulate matter (dust) and aerosols of hazardous chemical (VOCs) in processes surface finishing and treatment of wood and wood products, in order to achieve the required hygiene and ecological characteristics and with a view to the protection of air and the working environment.
Authors: David Řehák, Jana Pupíková
Abstract: The article defines a theoretical basic research of possibilities to increase resistance of buildings in the zones of emergency planning of nuclear power stations and chemical facilities. It presents the key measure of population protection, of a repressive character, which is a provisional sheltering based on using natural safety attributes of buildings. Depending on this measure it defines basic physical attributes of building materials and technical requirements for buildings located in emergency planning zones. The end of the contribution presents possible ways to evaluate safety attributes of buildings in terms of permeability of radioactive and chemical substances.
Authors: Lucia Domaracká, Oľga Végsöová
Abstract: The submitted article is dealing with very delicate problem, how to supply with energy the whole system for polymetallic nodules mining. The whole mining system requires almost 6 megawatts. The environmental impact should be enormous at every level of the seabed mining, so it has to be taken in consider choosing the best way how to supply the mining system with energy. The article deals with renewable energy and its possible utilization at the sea.
Authors: Oľga Végsöová
Abstract: Among all biomass resources the work concentrates on one of the most important fuel source - dendromass. This paper focuses on comparison of some energy woody species for process of combustion from the aspect of amount of produced emissions, lower calorific value, humidity and presence of solid pollutants. The measured results compare which woody species are more suitable in terms of influence on the environment and surroundings.
Authors: Ján Stebila, Dušan Brozman, Ivan Ružiak, Milada Gajtanska
Abstract: Due to relatively low environmental awareness of a man, we have reported considerable deterioration of the environment on the Earth resulting mainly in destruction of the nature. In general, increasing people ́s awareness along with conscious environmentally-responsible behaviour may help slow down the process of degradation or even stop it. Consequently, in some regions and localities, we could report improvement in environmental conditions and thus ensure harmonisation of a relationship between the nature and a man as an unseparable part hereof.
Authors: Marián Šudý, Karol Balog, Maroš Soldán
Abstract: The present study investigates the degradation of atrazine (2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) by ozone and OH radicals during ozonization with the identification of the main degradation products after ozonation. The identification of main degradation products during atrazine degradation process was conducted by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS).
Authors: Eva Mračková, Ivan Chromek
Abstract: Pipeline is even essential technical means on the territory of Slovakia for the transit of oil. Like other states traversed by these arteries, even Slovakia must ensure ecological safety of this product during transport through its territory. The greatest risk of oil spills is in the area of pipeline crossing a watercourse. Content of the article focuses on the description of the organizational - technical measures and technical means for the destruction of oil spill into the watercourse.

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