Chemical Engineering and Material Properties III

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Authors: Yin Zhu Ye, Xing Cai Wu, Zheng Bo Wang, Li Ming Shao, Zhi Hui Zeng
Abstract: Soft moveable gel (SMG) is a new kind of deep profile control microgels used in many oilfields. SMG has many advantages of high temperature, salt tolerance, shear resistance, controllable grain size, good control and oil displacement effect. The SMG deep profile control technique can remarkably improve oil recovery of the high temperature and high salinity oilfields. While the successful applications of SMG deep profile control technique are greatly decided by the size matching ability between SMG microgels micelle particles and reservoir pore throat. Therefore, three different experimental methods such as microscope, SEM analysis, and laser scattering method are used for particle characterization at first. Based on that, the new method utilizing near-infrared spectroscopy is innovated and developed. The method has the advantages of non-destructive measurement of original state, convenient, accurate and reliable results etc.. Finally, three levels of SMG particle size entitled by nanometer, micron, and sub-millimeter are systematically evaluated. The results show the sizes are 0.06, 21.37, about 39.24 μm respectively in the new method. Different particle size of SMG can be applied in deep profile control of high, medium or low permeability reservoirs correspondingly with high temperature and high salinity.
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Authors: Xiao Qiong Ren, Ya Nan Wu, Ying Li, Mo Han Lin, Feng Qing Zhao
Abstract: Gypsum retarder is an important additive of building materials. Commercial gypsum retarders are mainly composed of four types: organic acids, phosphates, protein and composite retarder. Although the effects of organic acids and phosphates have better retarding performances, there is still obvious a shortcoming that the mechanical strength reduces largely with time going by. Protein based retarders prolong the setting time of hemihydrates with less strength loss and higher costs. The gypsum retarder from waste mycelium, a protein-rich raw material, solved the problem of the disposal of waste mycelium from anti-biotic plants, while producing high-quality retarder for gypsum, shows potential for future.
272
Authors: Jian Zhao, Jing Cai Chang, Jia Qiu Song, Ai Ping Tao, Ming Feng Gao
Abstract: Rigorous new regulations in coal-fired pollutants emissions from power plant strengthen the requirements for electrostatic precipitator (ESP) technology. The study was inspired by the requirement to use the new composite collectors as substitutes for typical steel collector to save energy and structural materials. A bench scale and a pilot scale experimental system have been set up to investigate the performance of the novel wet composite collector. Contrastive collection efficiencies of different assembled modes were investigated. The removals of coal-fired pollutants including acid aerosol, ammonia aerosol, slurry droplets and fine particles were performed in new wet ESP, as well as to quantify the key properties of the new wet ESP. The results show that the collection efficiency of the new composite collector was higher than that by typical collectors using a thimbleful of water penetrating the surface via capillary flow. The new wet ESP device acts in synergy with WFGD and SCR systems for controlling coal-fired pollutants emissions and solves the adverse impacts caused by wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems at the same time.
276
Authors: Zeng Ping Zhang, Xing Jiao Wu, Xiao Fen Nan, Meng Jia, Ji Cheng Han
Abstract: In order to increase the life of bituminous pavement, quality of bitumen needs to be enhanced and modified. Different dosages of nano-organic montmorillonite (nano-OMMT) were used as modifier for base asphalt. The effect of the contents of nano-OMMT on high temperature performance of asphalt was investigated. Experimental results showed that with the increase of nano-OMMT of content, the high temperature performance of asphalt was gradually improved. And the high temperature sensitivity of asphalt is also enhanced. The nano-OMMT modified asphalt is expected to possess superior rutting resistance to the base asphalt.
283
Authors: Xu Zhang, Dan Li, Hua Xie, Di Wang
Abstract: The water-based fire retardant is one kind of additive type flame retardant, which uses water as the dispersion medium and improves the flame retardant performance of wood, fabric or cardboard by spraying or dipping. In this paper, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and diammonium phosphate were used as raw materials for preparing the water-based flame retardants according to four different proportions of 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50. Three kinds of fabrics were disposed with the retardant firstly, and then dried in the air, at last immersed in water, liquid soap and detergent solution with one hour. Air dried fabrics were characterized by differential thermal and thermal gravimetric analysis, and effect of water-based fire retardant of ammonium phosphate on the thermal decomposition properties also discussed on the basis of the experimental data. These results may have significant potential towards exploring preparation and application of other water-based flame retardants.
287
Authors: Chuan Bao Wu
Abstract: Composites with the chopped segments of lower part of rice straw (LRSS) as main constituent, poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as adhesive constituent and waste paper (WP) as enhancing constituent were prepared by hot-pressing method. WP showed good enhancing role and certain toughening effect. WP made tensile strength increase by 86% and strength at tensile break by 69%; when composites were prepared at 40% PVA content, 140°C for 10 min. The tensile stretch and stretch at maximum tensile force of WP enhanced composite were respectively 16.5% and 14.3%, while those were respectively 12.3% and 11.9% without WP. The tensile strength of the composites increased with increasing PVA content. From 20% PVA content to 50% PVA content, tensile strength increased by 42.8%. When PVA content was 50%, the composite reached its maximum strength of 8.71 MPa. The hardness of composites lay between 91 and 97.
291
Authors: Wei Dong Xu, Heng Liu, Sha Shi Zhang, Jiang Hua Wu, Jin Song Zhu
Abstract: Precision guided weapons (PGWs) have valuable application in field warfare. In order to interfere with Laser, Thermal Infrared (TIR) and Television guidance, this paper intends to research and develop a smoke-generating material that is capable of shielding visible lights, TIR and Millimeter Wave (MMW), based on the attenuation characteristic of expandable graphite to IR and MMW. The formulation is studied by orthogonal design, camouflage effect is verified by experiment, and the material with multiband interfering capacity is preliminarily prepared.
295
Authors: Feng Jiao Liu, Zhong Zhu Qiu, Shi Wei Chen
Abstract: Several factors affecting the stability of microcapsules during its manufacturing process are introduced in this paper, mainly including the variety and dosage of adding additives, the stirring energy, the mass fraction, PH and temperature, carrier fluid and other factors on the physical stability. Then, this paper points out the future research direction.
299
Authors: Jiang Yan Meng, Yun Ying Wang
Abstract: Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film was treated by low-temperature plasma. Scanning electronic microscope, electronic universal testing machine, contact angle/interfacial tension measuring instrument were used to analyze the surface morphology, surface contact angle, bonding strength and performance of LDPE film before and after they were treated by low-temperature plasma. The results show that air ambience is more appropriate than N2, CO2 for treatment. Specifically, plasma treatment in air ambience, under conditions of 44 W (power), 30 s (duration) and 60 Pa (vacuum degree), can decline static contact angle of LDPE film from 101° to 13.5°. The transiency of plasma-treated LDPE film is so obvious that storage time of longer than one hour will result in a contact angle up to 74° and loss of plasma treatment effect (timeliness). Therefore, the reversible plasma-treated LDPE film should be processed immediately.
303
Authors: Jia Mei Geng
Abstract: With the deepening of the degree of oil exploration and development, as well as the rapid growth of world demand for oil, heavy oil reservoir development is becoming increasingly important in the position in oil exploration. For reserves a great deal of ultra heavy oil reservoir at present, conventional thermal recovery technology is difficult to obtain a good development effect. In this study we use computational fluid dynamics software ANYSY CFX to analyze the impact of horizontal and vertical pressure gradient on the seepage velocity difference..
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