ZrB2-SiC and ZrB2-SiC-C ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTCs) were fabricated by pressureless sintering under an argon atmosphere. The mass and linear ablation rates were tested in an oxyacetylene flame with high velocity. The microstructure and phase transformation of the ZrB2-based UHTCs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy along with energy dispersive spectrometry. Results show that the UHTCs have excellent properties of ablation resistance at ultra-high temperature. The values of mass and linear ablation rates were lower in the ZrB2-SiC UHTCs than those measured for ZrB2-SiC-C. The effect of C addition on the ablation resistant was not obvious but it influenced the microstructure of the ZrB2-SiC UHTCs. And the ablation resistant mechanisms of ZrB2-based UHTCs were discussed according to microstructure analysis.