The purpose of this study is to develop an innovative assessment to explore the characteristics of Taiwanese eighth graders’ online reading literacy. The online reading literacy assessment (ORLA) is designed based on PISA’s Electronic Reading Assessment Framework which contains three reading processes: retrieving information, interpreting information, and reflecting on and evaluating content of texts. There are 176 eighth graders sampled from three schools in Tainan districts. The results indicate that ORLA is a valid but relatively difficult test for most of eighth graders. The internal consistency Alpha is .65. The correlation coefficient between ORLA and the computerized reading comprehension test (CRCT) is .51. In other words, online reading literacy is reasonably independent from reading comprehension. The tasks of online searching and integrating different sources of information are functioning differently from the conventional reading tasks. The correlation coefficients between ORLA and the school grades of five subjects (English, Science, Mathematics, Social Science, and Chinese) ranged from .36 to .54. The pattern of correlation coefficients demonstrates sensible supporting evidences for the convergent and discriminant validity.