Effects of Indium Incorporation on the Optical Properties of ZnO Films
Transparent indium-doped ZnO (IZO) films with low In content (<6at%) were fabricated through radio-frequency (rf) helicon magnetron sputtering. Formation of In-Zn-O solid solution was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. Incorporation of indium into ZnO films enhances the optical transmission in the visible wavelength. The optical band-gaps slightly increase from 3.25eV (ZnO) to 3.28eV (In0.04Zn0.96O) and to 3.30eV (In0.06Zn0.94O) due to Burstain-Moss effect. The Urbach tail parameter E0, which is believed to be a function of structural disorder, increases from 79meV (ZnO), to 146meV (In0.04Zn0.96O), and to 173meV (In0.06Zn0.94O), which is consistent with increase of Full-Width Half-Maximum (FWHM) in corresponding XRD patterns. Decreasing in crystal quality with increasing indium concentration is also confirmed by photoluminescence spectra.
Masayuki Nogami, Riguang Jin, Toshihiro Kasuga and Wantai Yang
Y. G. Cao et al., "Effects of Indium Incorporation on the Optical Properties of ZnO Films", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 11-12, pp. 159-162, 2006