Die Soldering Phenomenon on the H13 Tool Steel with Shot Peening and Nitriding Surface Treatment


Article Preview

Die soldering occurs when molten aluminum sticks to the surface of a die material and remains there after the ejection of the part. This resulted in low productivity and economic value in the foundry industry. Nitriding surface treatment is considered as an effective way in enhancing the service life of AISI H13 steel dies and to prevent soldering effect. The focus of this paper is to investigate the influence of three different surface conditions in terms of roughness, gas nitriding and pretreatment prior to gas nitriding on the soldering effect. Three kind of samples made of AISI H13 steel were pretreated (quenched and tempered) and followed by : shot peened, gas nitrided and shot peening followed by gas nitriding, were immersed in liquid melted ADC 12 Aluminium alloy at 30 seconds, 30 minutes, 2 hours and 5 hours, at a constant temperature of 680oC in a holding furnace. Characterizations on the surface of the steel were focused on the optical microstructure, microhardness profile, FE SEM observation and enegy dispersive spectrometry mapping. It was found that shot peening prior to nitriding gives a higher surface hardness and depth of nitride layer of H13 tool steel, 1140 HV (>70 HRC) and 120.5 μm, than the nitriding only process, 1033 HV (68 HRC) and 105 μm. The higher the hardness and depth of nitride layer expected would reduce the die soldering effect at the surface of the H13 tool steel dies. It was also found that the only shot peening treatment resulted in a tendency of soldering accompanied by the formation of intermetallic layers ; while soldering is not found on the nitrided and shot peened-nitrided samples.



Edited by:

Prof. Osman Adiguzel




M. Ariati et al., "Die Soldering Phenomenon on the H13 Tool Steel with Shot Peening and Nitriding Surface Treatment", Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 1101, pp. 157-163, 2015

Online since:

April 2015




* - Corresponding Author

[1] V Joshi, Srivastava, A., Shivpuri, R., Investigating ion nitriding for the reduction of dissolution and soldering in die-casting shot sleeves, Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 163-164, 2003, pp.668-673.

DOI: 10.1016/s0257-8972(02)00693-x

[2] S Shankar, and D Apelian, Mechanism and Preventive Measures for Die Soldering during Al Casting in a Ferrous Mold , Journal of Materials, 2002, pp.47-54.

DOI: 10.1007/bf02711867

[3] Q Han, and S Viswanathan, Analysis of the Mechanism of Die Soldering in Aluminum Die Casting, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol. 34A, 2003, pp.139-146.

DOI: 10.1007/s11661-003-0215-9

[4] S Shankar, and D Apelian, Die Soldering: Mechanism of the Interface Reaction between Molten Aluminum Alloy and Tool Steel, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions, vol. 33B, 2002, pp.465-476.

DOI: 10.1007/s11663-002-0057-7

[5] S Shankar, A Study of Interface Reaction Mechanism Between Molten Aluminum and Ferrous Die Material, WPI, (2000).

[6] S Shankar, and D Apeian, Die Soldering - A Metallurgical Analysis of the Molten Metal/Die Interface Reaction, NADCA Transaction (1997).

[7] V Joshi, A Srivastava, and R Shivpuri, Intermetallic formation and its relation to interface mass loss and tribology in die casting dies, Wear, vol. 256, no. 11-12, 2004, pp.1232-1235.

DOI: 10.1016/j.wear.2003.08.001

[8] ASM International, ASM Handbook, Vol 05, Surface Engineering, (2005).

[9] S R Meka, Nitriding of iron-based binary and ternary alloys: microstructural development during nitride precipitation, Dissertation, Max-Planck-Institut für Metallforschung, Stuttgart University, Stuttgart, (2011).

[10] Baskaran Bhuvaraghan, Sivakumar M Srinivasan, and B Maffeo, Optimization of the fatigue strenght of materials due to shot peening: A survey , Internatio nal Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, vol. 2, 2010, pp.33-63.

DOI: 10.1080/0305215x.2010.508523

[11] L Shen, L Wang, Y Wang, and C Wang, Plasma nitriding of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel with pre-shot peening, Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 204, no. 20, 2010, pp.3222-3227.

DOI: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2010.03.018

[12] Volker, Characteristics of surface layers produced by shot peening, Shot Peening Handbook, Germany: Wiley-VCH, 2002, pp.145-157.

DOI: 10.1002/3527606580.ch20

[13] S Lu, Strain-induced Microstructure Refinement in a Tool Steel Subjected to Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment, Journal of Materials Science and technology, vol. 26, no. 3, 2010, pp.256-263.

DOI: 10.1016/s1005-0302(10)60043-6

[14] D Manova, D Mandl, H Neumann, and B Rauschenbach, Influence of Grain Size on Nitrogen Diffusivity in Austenitic Stainless Steel, Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 201, 2007, pp.6686-6689.

DOI: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2006.09.104

[15] W P Tong, N R Tao, Z B Wang, J Lu, and K Lu, Nitriding Iron at Lower Temperature, Science, vol. 299, 2003, pp.686-688.

[16] D Pye, Practical Nitriding and Ferritic Nitrocarburizing, Ohio: ASM International, (2003).

[17] S Kikuchi, and J Komotori, Effect of Fine Particle Peening Treatment prior to Nitriding on Fatigue Properties of AISI 4135 Steel, Journal of Solid Mechanics and Materials Engineering, vol. 2, no. 11, 2008, pp.1444-1450.

DOI: 10.1299/jmmp.2.1444

Fetching data from Crossref.
This may take some time to load.