On the Role of NaCl Addition to Phase Transformation of TiO2 from TiCl3


Article Preview

Phase transformation of TiO2 (titanium dioxide) nanoparticles has been analyzed by observing the effect of NaCl addition to the anatase-to-rutile phase transformation. NaCl is one of key points in the transformation of rutile. Co-precipitation method was employed in which TiCl3 as precursor was reacted with HCl 2M and subsequent NH4OH. Three methods were studied, namely solution without NaCl addition (TiCl3 + HCl + NH4OH) as control solution subjected to route A (TiCl3 + HCl – NaCl– NH4OH – heated at 600°C for 5 hours) and route B (TiCl3 + NaCl – heated 200°C for 5 hours – NH4OH – heated 200°C for 6 hours). Route B was subjected to heating at 200°C. The results show that without NaCl it enhanced the crystal growth of the rutile embryos allowing the ease of rutile formation at 600°C, while route A promoted the transformation of brookite and hindered anatase-to-rutile transformation as indicated by the presence of anatase at 1000°C. On the other hand route B is potential for being further explored.



Edited by:

Ferry Iskandar, Satria Zulkarnaen Bisri, Prof. Mikrajuddin Abdullah, Prof. Khairurrijal and Prof. Kikuo Okuyama




I. E. Putri et al., "On the Role of NaCl Addition to Phase Transformation of TiO2 from TiCl3", Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 1112, pp. 313-316, 2015

Online since:

July 2015




* - Corresponding Author

[1] R. A. Wahyuono, D. D. Risanti, Quasi-solid State DSSC Performance Enhancement by Bilayer Mesoporous TiO2 Structure Modification, Adv. Mater. Res. 789 (2013) 93-96.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/amr.789.93

[2] S. Hore, C, Vetter, R. Kern, H. Smit, A. Hinsch, Solar Energy Mater., Solar Cells 90 (2006) 1176.

[3] S. Ito, S. M. Zakeerudiin, R. H. Baker, P. Liska, P. Charvet, P. Comte, M. K. Nazeeruddin, P. Pechy, M. Takata, H. Miura, S. Uchida, M. Gratzel, Adv. Mater. 18 (2006) 1202.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.200502540

[4] G. P. Demopulos, C. Charbonneau, Hybrid Dye-sensitized Solar Cell Photoanodes Based on Aqueous-synthesized Titanium Dioxide, Patent Number CA2742352 A1 (2012).

[5] Y. Rui, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, H. Wang, Facile Synthesis of Rutile TiO2 Nanorod Microspheres for Enchancing Light-harvesting of Dye-sensitized Solar Cells, Cryst. Eng. Comm. 15 (2013) 1651.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/c2ce26691a

[6] Castro, A. L., Nunes, M. R., Carvalho, A. P., Costa, F. M., Florencio, M. H., Synthesis of Anatase TiO2 Nanoparticles with High Temperature Stability and Photocatalytic Activity, Solid State Science. 15 (2008) 602–606.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solidstatesciences.2007.10.012

[7] K. R. Zhu, M. S. Zhang, J. M. Hong, Z. Yin, Size Effect on Phase Transition Sequence of TiO2 Nanocrystal, Material Science and Engineering A. 403 (2005) 87-93.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2005.04.029

Fetching data from Crossref.
This may take some time to load.