Advances in Manufacturing and Materials Engineering

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Authors: M.A. Moudood, Abdus Sabur, Mohammad Yeakub Ali, I.H. Jaafar
Abstract: Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a non-conventional machining technique which can be used to machine non-conductive ceramics. This technique removes materials from the workpiece by thermal energy exerted from series of electrical sparks. Using copper foil as assisting electrode (AE), machining of Al2O3 is done successfully. In this investigation, experiments were performed to study the effect of gap voltage and pulse-on time on material removal rate (MRR) for EDM of Al2O3. The results showed that the lowest and the highest values of gap voltage were 12 V and 14 V, respectively, with a fixed peak current of 1.1 A and pulse-on time of 8 μs. Beyond these two voltage values, material cannot be removed due to insufficient pyrolytic carbon layer generation. Similarly, pulse-on time is varied from 6 μs to 8 μs when gap voltage is fixed at 14 V and peak current at 1.1 A. MRR, in this case, is increased almost 20 times from a lowest value of 0.006 mm3/min to a highest value of 0.119 mm3/min for the specified gap voltage and pulse-on time.
Authors: Ahsan Ali Khan, Nurfarah Wahid Azmi, Mohd Azim Odenan, Zakatia Mohd Zain
Abstract: This research work describes the effect of powder concentration in dielectric fluid during electrical discharge machining (EDM) of mild steel on material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear rate (EWR) and work surface roughness (Ra). The machining parameters studied in this research are current (4.5A, 5.5A, and 6.5A) and concentration of the powder (30g/l, 60g/l, and 90g/l). It was decided to use copper (Cu) as the electrode, mild steel as the work material and tantalum carbide (TaC) as the powder to be mixed with the dielectric. Design-Expert software was used to design and analyze the experiments. The performance of machining was analyzed and it was found that powder concentration does not have much effect on MRR or work surface roughness (Ra). At low current powder concentration reduces electrode wear rate (EWR), but at higher current the situation is opposite. It was also found that in all conditions, MRR and EWR increases with increase in current. A higher current produces stronger spark with higher energy that melts more materials from the workpiece and the electrode. As a result both MRR and EWR increases and job surface becomes poor.
Authors: Nur Atiqah, Mohammad Yeakub Ali, Abdul Rahman Mohamed, Md. Sazzad Hossein Chowdhury
Abstract: Micro end milling is one of the most important micromachining process and widely used for producing miniaturized components with high accuracy and surface finish. This paper present the influence of three micro end milling process parameters; spindle speed, feed rate, and depth of cut on surface roughness (Ra) and material removal rate (MRR). The machining was performed using multi-process micro machine tools (DT-110 Mikrotools Inc., Singapore) with poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) as the workpiece and tungsten carbide as its tool. To develop the mathematical model for the responses in high speed micro end milling machining, Taguchi design has been used to design the experiment by using the orthogonal array of three levels L18 (21×37). The developed models were used for multiple response optimizations by desirability function approach to obtain minimum Ra and maximum MRR. The optimized values of Ra and MRR were 128.24 nm, and 0.0463 mg/min, respectively obtained at spindle speed of 30000 rpm, feed rate of 2.65 mm/min, and depth of cut of 40 μm. The analysis of variance revealed that spindle speeds are the most influential parameters on Ra. The optimization of MRR is mostly influence by feed rate. Keywords: Micro milling, surface roughness, MRR, PMMA
Authors: Abdus Sabur, Syed Mohammed Mehdi, Mohammad Yeakub Ali, Mohammad Abdul Maleque, Abdul Moudood
Abstract: This paper investigates the average surface roughness (Ra) in micro-electrical discharge machining of electrically nonconductive zirconium oxide (ZrO2) ceramic using powder mixed dielectric. The gap voltage and concentration of tantalum carbide (TaC) powder are considered as the variable parameters for the investigation while other conditions are kept constant. Response surface methodology is used for design of experiments and to analyze the results for a better surface finish. The study shows that both the gap voltage and powder concentration have a significant effect on the average surface roughness of ZrO2. However, voltage has the higher effect than powder concentration on the surface integrity. The optimized values of gap voltage and powder concentration are found to be 94.39 V and 6.28g/l respectively for a minimum surface roughness in micro-EDM of ZrO2.
Authors: Banu Asfana, Mohammad Yeakub Ali, Abdul Rahman Mohamed, Wayne N.P. Hung
Abstract: This paper investigates the material removal rate (MRR) in electro discharge micromachining (micro-EDM) of zirconia. Experimental investigation is carried out with 800 μm diameter tungsten electrode with two varying parameters rotational speed and gap voltage. The MRR data are analyzed and an empirical model is developed using Design Expert software. The optimum parameters for maximum MRR are found to be 375 rpm rotational speed and 80 V gap voltage.
Authors: Ahsan Ali Khan, Mohammed Baba Ndaliman, Ummu Atiqah Khairiyah binti Mohamad, Nurul Farhana binti Sulong, Zakaria Mohd Zain
Abstract: Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is one of the most commonly used technique to machine very hard materials. Materials like hardened tool steels, titanium and its alloys and difficult-to-machine materials can be easily processed with EDM. The machining performance to a great extent depends on the composition of the electrode. This paper presents the machining performance of powder metallurgy (PM) compacted electrodes made from titanium carbide (TiC) and copper (Cu) powders. The Cu-TiC electrodes made up of 70% of TiC and 30% of Cu powders. They were compacted at a pressure of 6,000 psi (41.34 MPa). Mild steel was used as the workpiece material. Machining was conducted with the peak current, pulse-on time and pulse-off time as the electrical input variables. The output variables of the investigation were work surface roughness and its hardness. It was found that work surface roughness increases with increase in current and pulse-on-time. However, it decreases with increase in pulse-off time. It was found that the highest value of surface roughness (14.782 μm) was found at highest peak current (6.5 A), highest pulse on-time (7.5 μs) and lowest pulse-off time (6.5 μs). The highest value of surface hardness (57.3 BHB) was found at the same machining conditions. The smoothest surface (14.782 μm) was found at the lowest peak current (3.5 A), lowest pulse on-time (6.0 μs) and highest pulse-off time (8.5 μs). The lowest value of surface hardness (42.9 BHB) was found at the same machining conditions.
Authors: M.A. Safaruddin, S.F.M. Shahar, I.H. Jaafar
Abstract: Fabrication of silicon (Si) wafer microfilters via focus ion beam (FIB) sputtering (milling/drilling) is planned. However, due to limitations of FIB sputtering, the wafer has to be initially thinned to a certain thickness to ensure that micron-scale through holes can be successfully manufactured. This paper reports on thinning of a silicon wafer via wet chemical etching using 15, 20, and 25% w/w potassium hydroxide (KOH) at 3 different etchant temperatures (80oC, 90oC, and 100oC). The target is to achieve 100 μm with the lowest time taken and wafer surface roughness after etching. From the experiments conducted, it was determined that KOH solution at 15% w/w concentration at 100oC produced the best result with an etch rate of 5.43 μm/min, surface roughness (Ra) of 0.12μm and thickness of 123.00μm.
Authors: D. Berestovskyi, N.P. Hung
Abstract: This research develops a hybrid micromanufacturing technique by combining micromilling and electrochemical micropolishing to fabricate extremely smooth surface finish, high aspect ratio, and complex microchannel patterns. Milling with coated and uncoated ball-end micromills in minimum quantity lubrication is used to remove most materials to define a channel pattern. The milled channels are then electrochemically polished to required finish. A theoretical model accurately predicts surface finish in meso-scale milling, but not in micro-scale milling due to size effect. Electrochemical polishing using an acid-based electrolyte is applied to repeatedly produce stainless steel microchannels with average surface finish of 100 nm when measuring across grain boundaries and 10 nm within a single grain.
Authors: A.K.M. Nurul Amin, A.A. Che Omar, M.A. Mohammed Kamal, Mahmoud M.A. Nassar, N.F. Mohd Zaib, Muammer Din Arif
Abstract: Soda lime glass is widely used in optics, chemical apparatus, camera lens, micro gas turbines, light bulbs etc. on account of its high hardness, corrosion resistance, and excellent optical properties. These require high dimensional accuracy and flawless surface finish. However, soda lime glass is inherently brittle leading to subsurface crack propagation and fracture which compromise its functionality. To avoid these defects, the machining needs to be performed under ductile mode conditions. Therefore, this research investigates the viability and requisite conditions for achieving ductile regime machining (DRM) in high speed micro-end milling of soda lime glass. Machining was performed at high cutting speeds (30,000 to 50,000 rpm), feed rate (5 to 15 mm/min), and depth of cut (3 to 7 μm). A surface profilometer was then used to measure the surface roughness and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) used to scrutinize the resultant machined surfaces. The results demonstrate that ductile streaks and rounded gummy chips (without sharp or jagged edges) are produced in all runs. In addition, there are no subsurface cracks and the minimum surface roughness attained is 0.08μm. These indicate that DRM of soda lime glass is obtainable using high-speed micro end milling in a conventional end mill with tungsten carbide inserts.

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